A(55) | B(41) | C(74) | D(42) | E(35) | F(42) | G(56) | H(32) | I(17) | J | K(8) | L(23) | M(24) | N(14) | O(16) | P(71) | Q(1) | R(77) | S(89) | T(32) | U(12) | V(10) | W(20) | X(1) | Y(4) | Z(1) | ALL(797)
Titlesort icon Definition Source
A.U. Abbr. Animal-UnitSyn. basal cover Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
A.U.M. Abbr. animal-unit-month Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
A.U.Y. Abbr. animal-unit-year Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Abiotic Non-living components of an ecosystem; basic elements and compounds of the environment. cf. biota, biomass Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Abundance (Rangeland) The total number of individuals of a species in an area, population, or community. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Accessibility (rangelands) The ease with which an area can be reached by people or penetrated and grazed by animals. The ease with which herbivores can reach plants or plant parts. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Acclimatized Species An introduced species which has become adapted to a new climate or a different environment and can perpetuate itself in the community without cultural treatment. cf. exotic, introduced species. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Acid Equivalent The amount of toxicant in a pesticide expressed in terms of the parent acid or the amount that theoretically can be converted to the parent acid. Abbr. a.e. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Active ingredient Chemical or chemicals in a prepared product responsible for the desired effects (generally pest control). Abbr. a.i. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Adjudication (1) The allocation of rights or privileges following a hearing of conflicting claims either by a court or a hearing board. May refer to grazing, water, or any other rights or privileges. (2) The apportionment of grazing use on public range among eligible applicants. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Adjustment Change in animal numbers, seasons of use, kinds or classes of animals, or management practices as warranted by specific conditions. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Administrative Site Work center or other area reserved for administrative purposes. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Aerial Photograph A photograph of the earth's surface taken from airborne equipment, sometime called aerial photo or air photograph. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Aftermath Forage available after harvest. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Age-Class (1) A descriptive term to indicate the relative age of plants. (2) Refers to age and class of animal. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Agro-silvo-pastoral Land use system in which woody perennials are grown with agricultural crops, forage crops, and livestock production. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Agroforestry Land use system in which woody perennials are grown for wood production with agricultural crops, with or without animal production. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Agroforestry Agroforestry intentionally combines agriculture and forestry to create integrated and sustainable land-use systems. Agroforestry takes advantage of the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with crops and/or livestock. Agroforestry practices include: Alley Cropping, Forest Farming, Riparian Forest Buffers, Silvopasture, and Windbreaks.... From USDA National Agroforestry Center http://www.unl.edu/nac/. February 2011
Air-Dry Weight The weight of a substance after it has been allowed to dry to equilibrium with the atmosphere. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Alienated Land Land of one ownership enclosed within boundaries of another ownership. Often refers to land in private ownership within the boundaries of public land. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Allelopathy Chemical inhibition of one organism by another. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Allotment A rangeland and/or forestland area designated for the use of a prescribed number and kind of livestock under one plan of management. cf. community allotment Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Allotment Management Plan A long-term operating plan for a grazing allotment on public land prepared and agreed to by the permittee and appropriate agency. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Alluvium Sediments deposited by streams, rivers, and moving waters. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Alternate Stocking The repeated grazing and resting of forage using two paddocks in succession. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Amortizing The process of paying initial costs plus subsequent interest costs over a payment period, usually in equal periodic installments. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal Substitution Ratio A numerical ratio of numbers, units or stocking levels of one animal species to another or in partitioning grazing capacity between two animal species. Such a ratio is site-specific since it is based on a unique set of environmental, forage, animal-herbage, and animal-area variables and requires knowledge of relative animal population levels. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal Unit Conversion Factor A document which specifies the total authorized grazing for one year. cf. term license or permit. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Day One day's tenure upon range by one animal. Must specify kind and class of animal. Not synonymous with animal-unit month. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Demand Energy requirement of ungulate herbivores based only on animal-related factors such as body size, stage of life cycle, production stage, etc. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Month A month's tenure upon range by one animal. Must specify kind and class of animal. Not synonymous with animal-unit month. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Unit Considered to be one mature cow of about 1,000 pounds (450 kg), either dry or with calf up to 6 months of age, or their equivalent, consuming about 26 pounds (12 kg) of forage/day on an oven-dry basis. Abbr. AU. cf. animal-unit-equivalent Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Unit-Day The forage demand (amount of forage) on an oven-dry basis required by one animal unit for a period of one day. Abbr. AUD Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Unit-Equivalent A number relating the forage dry matter intake (oven-dry basis) of a particular kind or class of animal relative to one AU. If intake is not known, it can be estimated from the ratio of the metabolic weight of the animal in question to the metabolic weight of one AU (450 kg to the .75 power). Abbr. AUE Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Unit-Month The amount of oven-dry forage (forage demand) required by one animal unit for a standardized period of 30 animal-unit-days. Not synonymous with animal month. Abbr. AUM. The term AUM is commonly used in three ways: (a) stocking rate, as in "X acres per AUM"; (b) forage allocations, as in "X AUMs in Allotment A"; (c) utilization, as in "X AUMs taken from Unit B." Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Unit-Year Equal to 12 AUMs. Abbr. AUY Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Annual Grassland California annual grasslands being managed as annual range and showing no trend in successional status. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Annual License or Permit A document which specifies the total authorized grazing for one year. cf. term license or permit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Annual Plant A plant that completes its life cycle and dies in 1 year or less. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Annual Range Range on which the principal forage plants are self-perpetuating annual, herbaceous species. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Apical dominance The suppression of lateral (side) branches by the apical (topmost) shoot, or apex, of the plant. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Apparent Trend An interpretation of trend based on observation and professional judgment at a single point in time. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Aquifer (rangelands) A geologic formation capable of transmitting water through its pores at a rate sufficient for water supply purposes. The term water-bearing is sometime used synonymously with aquifer when a stratum furnishes water for a specific use. Aquifers are usually saturated sands, gravel, fractures, caverns or vesicular rock. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Area Ignition (Firestorm) The practice of simultaneous ignition of fuel over an area planned to be burned under prescription or the natural occurrence/phenomenon of the same. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Arid A term applied to regions or climates where lack of sufficient moisture severely limits growth and production of vegetation. The limits of precipitation vary considerably according to temperature conditions, with an upper annual limit for cool regions of 10 inches or less and for tropical regions as much as 15 to 20 inches. cf. semiarid Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Arroyo The term used for large gully in Southwestern USA. Syn., coulee, gully Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Aspect (1) The visual first impression of vegetation or a landscape at a particular time or as seen from a specific point. (2) The predominant direction of slope of the land. (3) The seasonal changes in the appearance of vegetation. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Association Syn. plant association Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Autecology A subdivision of ecology that deals with the relationship of individuals of a species to their environment. cf. synecology Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Autogate Syn. Cattleguard Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Auxin A plant hormone promoting or regulating growth. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Available Forage cf. forage allowance, forage mass Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Available water The amount of water held in the soil that can be extracted by plants. Also, the difference in the amount of water contained in soil at field capacity and the amount at the permanent wilting point.
Avulsion (riparian) The sudden removal of land from one segment and joining it to another as a result of erosion caused by inundation or current. Also, a sudden change in the course of a river, by which a portion of land is cut off, as where a river changes course to form an oxbow.
Azonal Soil A soil lacking a well-defined profile. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Backfiring Ignition of a fire on the leeward (downwind) side of a burn area, resulting in a slow moving ground fire. cf. headfiring Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Badland A land type consisting of steep or very steep barren land, usually broken by an intricate maze of narrow ravines, sharp crests, and pinnacles resulting from serious erosion of soft geologic materials. Most common in arid or semiarid regions. A miscellaneous land type. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Balanced Operation A range livestock enterprise which provides sufficient feed and forage resources during each season to promote continuous satisfactory maintenance and production of its livestock and game. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Band Any number of sheep handled as a unit attended by a herder. cf. consolidated, drop, dayband, flock Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Band-Day Tenure by a band of sheep of a given size and class for one day. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Bare Ground All land surface not covered by vegetation, rock or litter. cf. ground cover Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Barren (rangelands) 1) (n.) Any area devoid of vegetation or practically so. (2) (adj.) A term to describe a mature female animal which is incapable of producing offspring. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Barrier A physical obstruction which limits the movement of animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Basal Area The cross sectional area of the stem or stems of a plant or of all plants in a stand. Herbaceous and small woody plants are measured at or near the ground level; larger woody plants are measured at breast or other designated height. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Basal Cover Syn. basal area, cover Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Base Property Those lands in a ranching enterprise which are owned or under long-term control of the operator. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Bed Ground An area where animals sleep and rest. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Bedrock In-place, solid rock exposed at the surface of the earth or overlain by unconsolidated material. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Bench Mark (1) A permanent reference point. (2) In range inventory, it is used as a point where changes in vegetation through time are measured. (3) In soils, it is used to designate a major soil series which is representative of similar soils. (4) In economics, data that are used as a base for comparative purposes with similar data. (5) A surveyor's mark made on a permanent landmark that has known position and altitude. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Bentonite A natural clay deposit which has high swelling capabilities when saturated; used to seal earthen stockponds. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biennial A plant that lives for two years, producing vegetative growth the first year and usually blooming and fruiting in the second year and then dying. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biocide A chemical toxic or lethal to living organisms. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biodegradable Capable of being decomposed by natural processes. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biogeochemical Cycle The cyclical system through which a given chemical element is transferred between biotic and abiotic components of the biosphere. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biomass The total amount of living plants and animals above and below ground in an area at a given time. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biome A major biotic unit consisting of plant and animal communities having similarities in form and environmental conditions, but not including the abiotic portion of the environment. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biota All the species of plants and animals occurring within an area or region. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biotic Refers to living components of an ecosystem, e.g., plants and animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biotype A group of individuals within a population occurring in nature, all with essentially the same genetic constitution. A species usually consists of many biotypes. cf. ecotype Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Blowout (1) An excavation in areas of loose soil, usually sand, produced by wind. (2) A breakthrough or rupture of a soil surface attributable to hydraulic pressure, usually associated with sand boils. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Brand (rangelands) (1) (v.) To mark the skin or wool of an animal in a distinctive pattern, by use of a hot or cold iron, chemical, paint, or other means to designate ownership or to identify individual animals for registration or management purposes. cf. marking, tagging, (2) (n.) The mark so made. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Breeding Herd The animals retained for breeding purposes to provide for the perpetuation of the herd or band. Excludes animals being prepared for market. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Broadcast Seeding Process of scattering seed on the surface of the soil prior to natural or artificial means of covering the seed with soil. cf. drill seeding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Browse (n.) The part of shrubs, woody vines and trees available for animal consumption. (v.) To search for or consume browse. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Browse Line A well-defined height to which browse has been removed by animals. cf. highlining Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Browseway A lane built through a dense brushland or brush thicket to provide access by herbivores and man and/or to encourage browse rejuvenation. cf. sendero Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Brush 1. A term encompassing various species of shrubs or small trees usually considered undesirable for livestock or timber management. The same species may have value for browse, wildlife habitat, or watershed protection. 2. In viticultural usage, the broken ends of vascular bundles that remain attached to the pedicel when a berry is pulled off of a cluster, or the prunings left in a vine row. First definition from: Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Brush Control Reduction of unwanted woody plants through fire, chemicals, mechanical methods, or biological means to achieve desired land management goals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Brush Management Manipulating woody plant cover to obtain desired quantities and types of woody cover and/or to reduce competition with herbaceous understory vegetation, in accordance with ecologically sound resource management objectives. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Brushland An area covered primarily with brush, i.e., shrubland. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Buck-Fence A fence constructed of wooden poles fastened horizontally to wooden cross-members. Such fences withstand heavy snows in mountainous regions, and eliminate the need for digging holes for posts in rock terrain. Also called buck-pole fence. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Bucking Range In certain localities, range selected for placing rams with ewes. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Buffalo Wallow A small natural depression of prairie occasionally containing standing water and having vegetation different from that of the surrounding area. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Bunch Grass A grass having the characteristic growth habit of forming a bunch; lacking stolons or rhizomes. cf. sod grass Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Burn An area over which fire has recently passed. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Butte An isolated hill with relatively steep sides. cf. mesa Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
C-3 Plant A plant employing the pentose phosphate pathway of carbon dioxide assimilation during photosynthesis; often a cool-season plant. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
C-4 Plant A plant employing the dicarboxylic acid pathway of carbon dioxide assimilation during photosynthesis; often a warm season plant. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cabling The use of a large cable pulled between two large crawler tractors to pull down or uproot brush. cf. chaining Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cactus A spiny, succulent plant of the Cactaceae family. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Calf Crop The number of calves weaned from a given number of cows exposed to breeding, usually expressed in percent, i.e., number of calves weaned {divided by} number of cows exposed x 100 = percent calf crop. cf. kid crop, lamb crop Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Caliche (1) A layer in the soil horizon more or less cemented by secondary carbonates of calcium or magnesium precipitated from the soil solution. It may occur as a soil, thin soil horizon, as a hard, thick bed just beneath the solum, or as a surface layer exposed by erosion. Not a geologic deposit. (2) Alluvium cemented with sodium nitrate, chloride, and/or other soluble salts as in the nitrate deposits of Chile and Peru. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Camp Tender One who transports supplies to a herder and moves the supply camp from place to place on the range. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Camp Unit A subdivision of a sheep allotment on federally owned land. The camp tender may have the camp in one location several days to service the herder, who tents on a different bed ground each night with the camp unit. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Canopy (rangelands) (1) The vertical projection downward of the aerial portion of vegetation, usually expressed as a percent of the ground so occupied. (2) The aerial portion of the overstory vegetation. cf. canopy cover Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Canopy Cover The percentage of ground covered by a vertical projection of the outermost perimeter of the natural spread of foliage of plants. Small openings within the canopy are included. It may exceed 100%. Syn. crown cover Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Capability Area Syn. ecological response unit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Carrying Capacity The average number of livestock and/or wildlife that may be sustained on a management unit compatible with management objectives for the unit. In addition to site characteristics, it is a function of management goals and management intensity. (SRM) The amount of forage produced annually in a management unit is only one attribute used to determine carrying capacity. The forage also has to be available to the animals. On many rangelands, the carrying capacity may be less than forage production would indicate because parts of the management unit are inaccessible to grazing animals. In essence, forage is present but unavailable. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Catchment Basin Syn. Raintrap Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cattle Walkway Syn. Walkway Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cattleguard A device or structure, at points where roads or railroads cross a fence line, that is so designed that vehicular travel is uninterrupted but crossing by all kinds of livestock is restricted. Syn. Autogate Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cell A grazing arrangement comprised of numerous subdivisions (paddocks or pastures) often formed by electrical fencing, with a central component to facilitate livestock management and movement to the various subdivisions. Normally used to facilitate a form of controlled grazing. cf. paddock Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Chaining The use of a large ship anchor chain pulled between two large crawler tractors to pull down or uproot brush. cf. cabling Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Chaparral (rangelands) (1) A shrub community composed of sclerophyllous species. (2) A dense thicket of stiff or thorny shrubs or dwarf trees. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Chiseling Breaking or loosening the soil, without inversion, with a chisel cultivator or chisel plow. A practice used for grassland or pasture renovation. cf. ripping Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Class of Animal Description of age and/or sex-group for a particular kind of animal. Example, cow, calf, yearling, ewe, doe, fawn, etc. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Classification The assignment of items or concepts into classes based on similarity of selected attributes. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Claypan A dense compact layer in the subsoil having a much higher clay content than the overlaying material from which it is separated by a sharply defined boundary; formed by downward movement of clay or by synthesis of clay in place during soil formation. Claypans are usually hard when dry and plastic and sticky when wet. They usually impede the movement of water and air. cf. hardpan Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Climate (1) The long-term manifestations of weather (2) The statistical collection and representation of weather conditions for a specified area during a specified time interval, usually decades, together with a description of the state of the external system or boundary conditions. Properties that characterize climate are thermal (temperatures of the surface air, water, land, and ice), kinetic (wind and ocean currents, together with associated vertical motions and the motions of air masses, aqueous humidity, cloudiness and cloud water content, groundwater, lake lands, and water content of snow on land and sea ice), and static (pressure and density of the atmosphere and ocean, composition of the dry air, salinity of the oceans, and the geometric boundaries and physical constants of the system); these properties are interconnected by various physical processes such as precipitation, evaporation, infrared radiation, convection, advection, and turbulence. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Climax (1) The final or stable biotic community in a successional series; it is self-perpetuating and in equilibrium with the physical habitat. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Clone (1) A group of plants, growing in close association, derived by asexual reproduction from a single parent plant. Such plants are therefore of the same genetic constitution. (2) Genetically identical plants, usually obtained from asexual propagation methods. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Close Herding Handling a herd in a closely bunched manner, restricting the natural spread of the animals when grazing. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Closed Area Any area closed to certain types of use for management purposes. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Closed Range Any range on which livestock grazing or other specified use is prohibited. cf. livestock exclusion Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cold Stratification Keeping seed in a cool, moist environment for a period of time to simulate overwintering thereby reducing dormancy and increasing seed germination. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Commensurability Capacity of a permittee's base ranch property to support permitted livestock during the period such livestock are off public land. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Commensurate Property Land or controlled livestock water which qualifies a person for a grazing privilege, permit, or preference on the other land, either public or private. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Common Use Grazing the current year's forage production by more than one kind of grazing animal either at the same time or at different seasons. cf. dual use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Community A general term for an assemblage of plants and/or animals living together and interacting among themselves in a specific location; no particular successional status is implied. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Community (Plant Community) An assemblage of plants occurring together at any point in time, while denoting no particular successional status. A unit of vegetation. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Community Allotment An allotment upon which several permittees graze livestock in common. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Community Type An aggregation of all plant communities with similar structure and floristic composition. A unit of vegetation within a classification with no particular successional status implied. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Companion Crop A crop sown with another crop (perennial forage or trees or shrubs) that is allowed to mature and provide a return in the first year. cf. nurse crop. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Comparison Area An area with a documented history and/or condition that is used as a standard for comparison. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Competition (rangelands) The interaction between organisms as a result of the removal or reduction of a common, required resource from the environment. Resources may include water, nutrients, light, oxygen, carbon dioxide, food and shelter. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Complementary Pasture Short-term forage crop (not necessarily annual) planted for use by domestic stock to enhance the management and productivity of the ranch. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Complete Protection The exclusion of all grazing animals from an area, usually for an extended period of time. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Composition Syn. species composition Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Concentrate Feed Grains or their products and other processed food materials that contain a high proportion of nutrients and are low in fiber and water. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Conservation The use and management of natural resources according to principles that assure their sustained economic and/or social benefits without impairment of environmental quality. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Conservation District A public organization created under state enabling law as a special-purpose district to develop and carry out a program of a soil, water, and related resource conservation, use, and development within its boundaries. Usually a subdivision of state government with a local governing body and always with limited authorities. Often called a soil conservation district or a soil and water conservation district. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Conservation Plan The recorded decisions of a landowner or operator, cooperating with a conservation district, on how he/she plans, within practical limits, to use his/her land according to its capability and to treat it according to its needs for maintenance or improvement of the soil, water, and plant resources. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Consolidated Band A band of sheep made up of several small bands. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Constancy The percentage occurrence of a species within a given community type. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Consumers Heterotrophic organisms, chiefly animals, that ingest other organisms or particulate organic matter. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Consumption (rangelands) Dietary intake based on (1) amounts of specific forages and other feedstuffs, or (2) amounts of specific nutrients. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Contact herbicide An herbicide that kills primarily by contact with plant tissue rather than as a result of translocation; also called non-systemic. Only the portions of the plant which came into contact with the herbicide will be affected.
Continuous Grazing The grazing of a specific unit by livestock throughout a year or for that part of the year during which grazing is feasible. The term is not necessarily synonymous with yearlong grazing, since seasonal grazing may be involved. A preferred term is continuous stocking. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Continuous Stocking A method of grazing livestock on a specific unit of land where animals have unrestricted and uninterrupted access throughout the time period when grazing is allowed. The length of the grazing period should be defined. cf. rotational stocking, set stocking Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Contour Furrow A plowed or listed strip, commonly 8 to 18 inches deep and wide, made parallel to the horizontal contour for the purpose of water retention and reduction of soil erosion. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Control (rangelands) (PLANT) Manipulation and management for reduction of noxious plants, a term of many degrees ranging from slightly limiting to nearly complete replacement. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Control (rangelands) (RESEARCH) Term to designate the standard or no treatment in an experiment in order to evaluate treatment responses. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Controlled Burning Syn. prescribed burning Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Conversion Factor A factor by which stocking rates are partitioned according to the kind or class of animal based on energy requirements. cf. animal-unit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cool-Season Plant A plant which generally makes the major portion of its growth during the late fall, winter, and early spring. Cool-season species generally exhibit the C-3 photosynthetic pathway. cf. warm-season plant Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Coordinated Resource Management Planning The process whereby various user groups are involved in discussion of alternate resource uses and collectively diagnose management problems, establish goals and objectives, and evaluate multiple use resource management. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Corral A small enclosure for handling livestock. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Coulee The term used for a deep gulch or ravine in the northern USA. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cover (1) The plant or plant parts, living or dead, on the surface of the ground. Vegetative cover or herbage cover is composed of living plants and litter cover of dead parts of plants. Syn. foliar cover (2) The area of ground covered by plants of one or more species. cf. basal area Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cover Type The existing vegetation of an area. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Creep Feeding (rangelands) Supplemental feeding of suckling livestock in such a manner that the feed is not available to the mothers or other mature livestock. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Creep Grazing The practice of allowing juvenile animals to graze areas that their dams cannot access at the same time. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Critical Area An area which must be treated with special consideration because of inherent site factors, size, location, condition, values, or significant potential conflicts among uses. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cropland Land devoted to the production of cultivated crops. May be used to produce forage crops. cf. forage crop Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cryptogam A plant in any of the groups Thallophytes, Bryophytes, and Pteridophytes - mosses, lichens, and ferns. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cultivar (Derived from cultivated variety). A named variety selected within a plant species. Distinguished by any morphological, physiological, cytological, or chemical characteristics. A variety of plant produced and maintained by cultivation which is genetically retained through subsequent generations. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cumulative Herbage Disappearance The amount of herbage that disappears from the standing crop because of grazing, senescence, or other causes over some period of time. Unit: kg/ha, lbs/acre. cf. herbage disappearance rate Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cured Forage Forage, either standing or harvested, that has been naturally or artificially dried and preserved for future use. cf. stockpiling Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cut (1) (v.) To separate one or more animals from the herd or band. (n.) The animal(s) so separated. (2) To reduce livestock grazing, particularly on a public land allotment. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cut-Back (1) Animals refused by a buyer because of failure to meet specifications. (2) Animals removed from a higher to a lower classification in sorting for a specific purpose. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
DBH Abbr. diameter at breast height of a tree Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Death Loss The number of animals in a herd that die from various natural and accidental causes. Usually expressed as a percentage. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Debris Accumulated plant and animal remains. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Deciduous (Plant) Plant parts, particularly leaves, that are shed at regular intervals, or at a given stage of development, i.e. a deciduous plant regularly loses or sheds its leaves. cf. evergreen Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Decomposer Heterotrophic organisms, chiefly the microorganisms, that break down the bodies of dead animals or parts of dead plants and absorb some of the decomposition products while releasing similar compounds usable by producers. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Decreaser For a given plant community, those species that decrease in amount as a result of a specific abiotic/biotic influence or management practice. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Deferment The delay of grazing to achieve a specific management objective. A strategy aimed at providing time for plant reproduction, establishment of new plants, restoration of plant vigor, a return to environmental conditions appropriate for grazing, or the accumulation of forage for later use. cf. deferred grazing, rotational deferred Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Deferred Grazing The deferment of grazing in a nonsystematic rotation with other land units. cf. deferment Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Deferred-Rotation Any grazing system, which provides for a systematic rotation of the deferment among pastures. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Defoliation (rangelands) The removal of plant leaves, i.e., by grazing or browsing, cutting, chemical defoliant, or natural phenomena such as hail, fire, or frost. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Degree of Use The proportion of current year's forage production that is consumed and/or destroyed by grazing animals. May refer either to a single species or the vegetation as a whole. Syn. Use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Density Numbers of individuals or stems per unit area. Density does not equate to any kind of cover measurement. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Dependent Property Property generally associated with other lands for year-round livestock operation. cf. commensurate property Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Desert Land on which the vegetation is absent or sparse, often shrubby, and characterized by an arid climate. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Desertification The process by which an area or region becomes more arid through loss of soil and vegetative cover. The process is often accelerated by excessive continuous overstocking and drought. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Desirable Plant Species Species which contribute positively to the management objectives. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Desired Plant Community Of the several plant communities that may occupy a site, the one that has been identified through a management plan to best meet the plan's objectives for the site. It must protect the site as a minimum. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Detritus Fragmented particulate organic matter derived from the decomposition of debris. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Dietary Essentials (Nutrient) Nutrients that must be orally ingested, in contrast to those which can be manufactured or converted in the animal, such as through microbial symbiosis in the rumen. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Dipping (v.) Immersing animals in specific solutions to control insects or disease. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Dipping Vat A trough made of concrete, wood, or metal for holding solutions in which animals are dipped. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Discounting The process of determining the present value of a stream of future financial returns. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Diurnal (rangelands) Active during daylight hours. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Diversity The distribution and abundance of different plants and animal communities within an area. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Docking (v.) To surgically shorten an animal's tail Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Dogie Syn. Orphan Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Dominant (1) Plant species or species groups, which by means of their number, coverage, or size, have considerable influence or control upon the conditions of existence of associated species. (2) Those individual animals which, by their aggressive behavior or otherwise, determine the behavior of one or more animals resulting in the establishment of a social hierarchy. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Drag (1) Animals composing the rear of a moving herd. (2) An implement used for control of vegetation, e.g., chain drag. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Draw A natural watercourse, including the channel and adjacent areas on either side, which may occasionally overflow or receive extra water from higher adjacent areas; generally having intermittent flows associated with higher intensity rainfall. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Drenching (v.) Giving orally a forced dose of a specific solution to an animal, usually to control internal parasites. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Drift (v.) (1) The movement of materials by wind or water. (2) the natural movement of animals. (n.) Vegetative material moved and deposited by wind and water. cf. spray drift Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Drift Fence An open-ended fence used to retard or alter the natural movement of livestock; generally used in connection with natural barriers. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Drill Seeding Planting seed directly into the soil with a drill in rows, usually 6 to 24 inches apart. cf. broadcast seeding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Drip Torch Portable equipment for applying flammable liquids giving a residual flame upon ignition; primarily used in prescribed burning. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Drive The moving of livestock under human direction. In cowboy parlance, the term drift is often used in lieu of drive when animals are slowly urged in a certain direction. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Driveway A strip of land specifically designated for the controlled movement of livestock. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Drop Band A band of ewes that is giving birth or is expected to give birth within a few days. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Drouth (Drought) (1) A prolonged chronic shortage of water, as compared to the norm, often associated with high temperatures and winds during spring, summer and fall. (2) A period without precipitation during which the soil water content is reduced to such an extent that plants suffer from lack of water. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Dry Band A band of ewes without lambs. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Dry Meadow A meadow dominated by grasses which is characterized by soils which become moderately dry by mid-summer. cf. meadow and wet meadow Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Dual Use Grazing the current year's forage production by two species of grazing animals at the same time. cf. common use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Dugout (1) An artificially constructed depression that collects and stores water and differs from a reservoir in that a dam is not relied upon to impound water. cf. stockpond. (2) A large hole dug in the ground, frequently on the side of a hill, and often covered with logs and sod, used as a dwelling or shelter. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ear Marking The process of removing parts of the ears of livestock so as to leave a distinctive pattern for the purpose of designating ownership and identification. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecesis Establishment and development of a plant in the community. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecological Response Unit A unit of land that is homogenous in character such that similar units will respond in the same way to disturbance or manipulation. Syn. ecological site, ecological type Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecological Site A kind of land with specific physical characteristics which differs from other kinds of land in its ability to produce distinctive kinds and amounts of vegetation and in its response to management. Apparently synonymous with ecological type used by USFS. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecological Type Syn. ecological site Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecology The study of the interrelationships of organisms with their environment. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Economic Enterprise Syn. economic ranch firm Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Economic Ranch Firm A ranch business of sufficient earning capacity to provide an accepted standard of living for a family. Syn. economic enterprise Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecosystem Organisms together with their abiotic environment, forming an interacting system, inhabiting an identifiable space. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecotone A transition area of vegetation between two communities, having characteristics of both kinds of neighboring vegetation as well as characteristics of its own. Varies in width depending on site and climatic factors. cf. edge effect Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecotype A genetically differentiated subpopulation (race) that is restricted or adapted to a specific habitat 1. most differences among ecotypes are observed only when different ecotypes are tested in a common environment, 2. ecotypes are generally subdivided into races, e.g., edaphic, climatic (termed cline), geographic (termed variety)
Edaphic Refers to the soil. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Edge Effect (1) The influence of one adjoining plant community upon the margin of another affecting the composition and density of the populations. cf. ecotone (2) The effect executed by adjoining communities on the population structure within the margin zone. (3) The attraction of such an area to animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Effective Precipitation That portion of total precipitation that becomes available for plant growth. It does not include precipitation lost to deep percolation below the root zone or to surface runoff or to evaporation or which falls during the dormant season unless stored in the soil for later use during the growing season. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Effective Rainfall Syn. effective precipitation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Emergency Feeding Supplying feed to range animals when available forage is insufficient because of heavy storms, fires or other such emergencies. cf. maintenance feeding, supplemental feeding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Enclosure An area fenced to confine animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Endemic (rangelands) Native to or restricted to a particular area, region or country. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Energy Budget The balance of energy input and utilization within an organism, community, or system. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Environment (rangelands) The sum of all external conditions that affect an organism or community to influence its development or existence. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Epinasty The bending or twisting of twigs or leaf petiole or blades; often used in diagnosis of herbicidal effects on plants. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Eradication (plant) Complete kill or removal of a noxious plant from an area, including all plant structures capable of sexual or vegetative reproduction. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Erosion (v.) Detachment and movement of soil or rock fragments by water, wind, ice, or gravity. (n.) The land surface worn away by running water, wind, ice, or other geological agents, including such processes as gravitational creep. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Escarpment A steep slope or ridge, terminating high lands abruptly, which was formed by erosion or by faulting. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Esophageal-Cannula A device used for maintenance and closure of an esophageal fistula. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Esophageal-Fistula A permanent, surgically established opening in the esophagus of an animal used for collecting diet samples. cf. esophageal-cannula Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Essential Element A chemical element which is necessary for the life of an organism. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Evapotranspiration The actual total loss of water by evaporation from soil, water bodies, and transpiration from vegetation, over a given area with time. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Evergreen (plant) A plant that has leaves all year round, and generally sheds them in a single season after new leaves of the current growing season have matured. cf. deciduous Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Exclosure An area fenced to exclude animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Excretion The process of eliminating waste material from the body. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Exempt Stock Livestock which are permitted to graze on federal land free of charge. Usually confined to animals actually used for domestic purposes: saddle horses, milk cows, etc. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Exotic An organism or species which is not native to the region in which it is found. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Exposure (rangelands) Direction of slope with respect to points of a compass. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Extensive Grazing Management Grazing management that utilizes relatively large land areas per animal and a relatively low level of labor, resources, or capital. cf. intensive grazing management Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fattening Range Range devoted primarily to fattening of livestock for market. archaic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fauna The animal life of a region. A listing of animal species of a region. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Feces (faeces) Waste material voided through the anus. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Feed (rangelands) (n.) Any non-injurious, edible material having nutritive value when ingested (v.) The act of providing feed to animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Feed Ground A designated place on a range where livestock are fed. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Feed Reserve Feed stored for future use. cf. forage reserve Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Feral (rangelands) Escaped from cultivation or domestication and existing in the wild. cf. acclimatized species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fibrous Root System A plant root system having a large number of small, finely divided, widely spreading roots, but no large taproots. Typified by grass root system. cf. taproot system Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Firebreak A natural or man-made barrier used to prevent or retard the spread of fire, that is in existence or made before a fire occurs. It is usually created by the removal of vegetation. cf. fireline, fuelbreak Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fireline A narrow line, 2 to 10 feet wide, from which all vegetation is removed by soil sterilization, yearly maintenance, treatment with a suitable fire retardant, or clearing just before ignition of a prescribed burn. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
First-Last Grazing A method of utilizing two or more groups of animals, usually with different nutritional requirements, to graze sequentially on the same land area. Syn. leader-follower; preference-follower; top and bottom grazing. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Flexibility Characteristics of a management plan which allow it to accommodate changing conditions. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Flock A group of sheep managed in fenced pastures and not herded. cf. band Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Flora (1) The plant species of an area. (2) A simple list of plant species or a taxonomic manual. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Flushing Improving the nutrition of female breeding animals prior to and during the breeding season to stimulate ovulation. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fluvial Pertaining to or produced by the action of a stream or river. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fly Camp A secondary division of a main camp, generally more temporary than the central establishment. archaic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Foliage The green or live leaves of plants; mass leaves, leafage. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Foliar Cover The percentage of ground covered by the vertical projection of the aerial portion of plants. Small openings in the canopy and intraspecific overlap are excluded. Foliar cover is always less than canopy cover; either may exceed 100%. Syn. Cover Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage (rangelands) (n.) Browse and herbage which is available and may provide food for grazing animals or be harvested for feeding. (v.) To search for or consume forage. cf. (v.) browse, graze Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Accumulation The increase in forage mass per unit area over a specified period of time. This definition can be appropriately altered to be specific to herbage or browse by substituting these terms in place of forage. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Allocation The planning process or act of apportioning available forage among various kinds of animals, e.g., elk and cattle. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Allowance The relationship between the weight of forage dry matter per unit area and the number of animal units at any one point in time; a forage-to-animal relationship. The inverse of grazing pressure. May be expressed as forage mass per animal unit (forage mass/animal unit at a specific time). This definition can be appropriately altered to be specific to herbage or browse by substituting these terms in place of forage. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Crop A crop of cultivated plants or plant parts, other than separated grain, produced to be grazed or harvested for use as feed for animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Inventory An estimate of available forage in each pasture and for the operating unit as a whole; used to project stocking rates and feed requirements for specific time periods (i.e., annually, grazing season, rotation cycle, etc.). cf. grazing inventory Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Mass The total dry weight of forage per unit area of land, usually above ground level and at a defined reference level. This definition can be appropriately altered to be specific to herbage or browse by substituting these terms in place of forage. cf. available forage, herbage Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Production The weight of forage that is produced within a designated period of time on a given area. The weight may be expressed as either green, air-dry, or oven-dry. The term may also be modified as to time of production such as annual, current year's, or seasonal forage production. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Reserve Standing forage specifically maintained for future or emergency use. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Use Factor An index to the grazing use that may be made for forage species that will maintain economically important forage species or to achieve other management objectives. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forb Any broad-leafed herbaceous plant other than those in the Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae families. cf. legume Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forest Grazing The use of forestland or woodland for both wood production and animal production by grazing. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forested Range Forestland that produces, at least periodically, sufficient understory vegetation suitable for forage and that can be grazed without significantly impairing wood production and other forest values. Syn. grazable woodland, woodland range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forestland Land on which the vegetation is dominated by trees or, if trees are lacking, the land shows historic evidence of former forest and has not been converted to other uses. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forward Creep A method of creep grazing in which dams and offspring rotate through a series of paddocks with offspring as first grazers and dams as last grazers. A specific form of first-last grazing. cf. first-last grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Free Range Range open to grazing regardless of ownership and without payment of fees. Not to be confused with open range. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Free-Ranging Ability to roam or forage at will, unrestricted by fences. cf. open herding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Frequency The ratio between the number of sample units that contain a species and the total number of sample units. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fresh Mulch The primary layer of bulky, coarse, largely un-decayed herbage residuum. cf. mulch and humic mulch Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fresh Weight The weight of plant materials at the time of harvest. Syn. green weight Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Frontal Grazing A grazing method that allocated forage within a land area by means of a sliding fence that livestock can advance to gain access to ungrazed forage. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fuelbreak A strategically located block or strip on which existing flammable vegetation has been replaced by vegetation of lower fuel volume and/or flammability and subsequently maintained as an aid to fire control. cf. fireline Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Full Use The maximum use during a grazing season that can be made of range forage under a given grazing program without inducing a downward trend in range condition or successional status. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Game (1) Wild birds, fish, and other animals taken for sport or for use as food. (2) Wildlife species so designated by law and the harvest of which is regulated by law. cf. wildlife Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Game Cropping Use of game animals in a wild state through harvesting them to keep populations in check and to reduce extreme cycles in numbers. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Game Ranching Use of game animals under semidomestication to control breeding, health, nutrition, and production as a ranch-based enterprise. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Game Range Range that is predominantly grazed or browsed by wildlife seasonally or year around. Especially pertinent with migratory big game herds, e.g., winter elk or deer range. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Game Refuge An area set aside as a sanctuary for game. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Geographic Information System (GIS) A spatial type of information management system which provides for the entry, storage, manipulation, retrieval, and display of spatially oriented data. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grade (rangelands) (1) In livestock breeding, an offspring resulting from mating a purebred with a non-purebred or from mating animals not purebred but having close purebred ancestors. (2) In livestock marketing, a classification based on three fundamentals-conformation, finish, and quality-such as prime, choice, good, standard, etc. (3) To evaluate live animals in relation to a standard of quality. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Graminoid Grass or grass-like plant, such as Poa, Carex and Juncus species. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grass Members of the plant family Poaceae. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grass-like Plant A plant of the Cyperaceae or Juncaceae families which vegetatively resembles a true grass of the Poaceae family. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grassland Land on which the vegetation is dominated by grasses, grass like plants, and/or forbs (cf. dominant). Lands not presently grassland that were originally or could become grassland through natural succession may be classified as potential natural grassland. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Gravel Cobble Stones As defined in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Conservation Service 1975): Gravel (2 mm-7.5 cm or 3 inches), cobble (7.5-25 cm; 3-10 inches), stones over 25 cm; 10 inches ). (Note: For standard range inventory procedures it is recommended that gravel smaller that 5 mm in diameter be classed as bare ground in cover determinations.) Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazable Forestland Forestland on which the understory includes, as an integral part of the forest plant community, plants that can be grazed without detrimental impact to other forest values. Syn. grazable woodland, woodland range, forest range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazable Woodland Forestland on which the understory includes as an integral part of the forest plant community, plants that can be grazed without detrimental impact to other forest values. Syn. grazable forestland, forested range, woodland range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Graze (1) (vi.) The consumption of standing forage by livestock or wildlife. (2) (vt.) To put livestock to feed on standing forage. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazer A grazing animal. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazier A person who manages grazing animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing (rangelands) (vt.) To graze. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Animal Concentration Index The inverse of the grazing fraction, i.e., (l/GF). Abbr. GACI Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Behavior (rangelands) The foraging response elicited from a herbivore by its interaction with its surrounding environment. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Capacity The maximum stocking rate that will achieve a target level of animal performance, in a specified grazing method, based on total nutrient resources available, including harvested roughages and concentrates, that can be applied over a defined period without deterioration of the ecosystem. A description of the grazing capacity should include stocking rate, grazing method, targeted animal performance and nongrazed nutrient resources. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Cycle The time elapsed between the beginning of one grazing period and the beginning of the next grazing period in the same paddock where the forage is regularly grazed and rested. One grazing cycle includes one grazing period plus one rest period. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Distribution Dispersion of livestock grazing within a management unit or area. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing District (1) An administrative unit of Federal range established by the Secretary of Interior under the provisions of the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934, as amended. (2) An administrative unit of state, private, or other rangelands, established under certain state laws. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Event The length of time that an animal grazes without stopping. cf. grazing period Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Fee A charge, usually on a monthly basis, for grazing use by a given kind of animal. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Fraction The fraction of land in a single grazing system which is being grazed at any time. Abbr. GF cf. grazing animal concentration index Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing License or Permit Official written permission to graze a specific number, kind, and class of livestock for a specified period on a defined allotment or management area. cf. annual, temporary, and term license or permit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Management The manipulation of animal grazing in pursuit of a defined objective. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Management Plan A program of action designed to secure the best practicable use of the forage resources with grazing or browsing animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Management Unit The grazing land area used to support a group of grazing animals for a grazing season. It may be a single area or it may have a number of subdivisions. cf. paddock, pasture Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Method A defined procedure or technique of grazing management designed to achieve a specific objective(s). One or more grazing methods can be utilized within a grazing system. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Period The length of time that grazing livestock or wildlife occupy a specific land area. cf. grazing event Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Permit Syn. grazing license Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Preference (1) Selection of certain plants, or plant parts, over others by grazing animals. (2) In the administration of public lands, a basis upon which permits and licenses are issued for grazing use. cf. palatability, grazing privilege and grazing right Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Pressure An animal to forage relationship measured in terms of animal units per unit weight of forage at any instant, i.e., AU/kg or ton. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Pressure Index An animal to forage relationship measured in terms of animal units per unit weight of forage over a period of time, i.e., AU/kg or ton. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Privilege Permissive use of lands for grazing by livestock. cf. grazing right Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Right A right to graze specified lands, permanently vested in the beneficiary as specified by the terms of the law or contract. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Season (1) The time period during which grazing can normally be practiced each year or portion of each year. (2) On U.S. public lands, an established period for which grazing permits are issued. It may be the whole year or a very short time span, and is normally a function of forage mass and climate. In this context, the vegetative growing season may be only a part of the grazing season. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Survey The systematic collection of data pertaining to forage resources and other information pertinent to range management. May be either extensive or intensive grazing survey. cf. range survey, forage inventory Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing System A specialization of grazing management which defines the periods of grazing and non-grazing. Descriptive common names may be used; however, the first usage of a grazing system name in a publication should be followed by a description using a standard format. This format should consist of at least the following: the number of pastures (or units); number of herds; length of grazing periods; length of non-grazing periods for any given unit in the system followed by an abbreviation of the unit of time used. cf. deferred grazing, deferred-rotation, rotation, rest-rotation, and short duration grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Trespass The grazing of livestock on a range area without proper authority, and resulting from a willful or negligent act. cf. unauthorized use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Unit An area of land, public or private, which is grazed as an entity. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazingland Any vegetated land that is grazed or that has the potential to be grazed by animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazingland Management The manipulation of the soil-plant-animal complex of the grazing land in pursuit of a desired result. The definition may be applied to specific kinds of grazing land by substituting the appropriate term, such as grassland in place of grazingland. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ground Cover The percentage of material, other than bare ground, covering the land surface. It may include live and standing dead vegetation, litter, cobble, gravel, stones and bedrock. Ground cover plus bare ground would total 100 percent. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ground Datum A point on the earth’s surface used as reference for measuring the height of aerial photography and for calculating photo scale. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ground Truth Measurements or observations made on the ground for the purpose of verifying interpretations made from aerial photography or remote sensing.
Ground Water Subsurface water that is in the zone of saturation. The top surface of the ground water is the “water table.“ Source of water for wells, seepage, springs. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Growing season Period of active growth. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Growth Form The characteristic shape or appearance of an organism. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Growth regulator A growth regulator is a natural or synthetic compound that regulates plant or insect growth. A growth retardant is a natural or synthetic compound that reduces or stops plant growth. A plant growth regulator (PGR) can be naturally produced by the plant (a hormone), or synthesized and applied to the plant. Poinsettias are often sprayed with PGRs before sale, to keep the plants small enough to be shipped without excessive plant breakage.
Grubbing The act of removing roots, whether woody or herbaceous, by man or animal. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Gully A furrow, channel or miniature valley, usually with steep sides through which water commonly flows during and immediately after rains or snow melt. cf. arroyo and coulee Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Guzzler A device for collecting and storing precipitation for use by wildlife or livestock. Usually, consists of an impenetrable water collecting area, a storage facility and a trough from which animals can drink. Syn. raintrap, catchment basin. cf. trick tank Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Habitat (rangelands) The natural abode of a plant or animal, including all biotic, climatic, and edaphic factors affecting life. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Habitat Type The collective area which one plant association occupies or will come to occupy as succession advances. The habitat type is defined and described on the basis of the vegetation and its associated environment. The concept was developed by Rexford Daubenmire. Habitat type is similar in concept to ecological site. The difference depends mainly on how specifically plant associations are defined. Habitat type is often misused to refer to classification of vegetation or wildlife habitat rather than a land classification. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Half-Shrub A perennial plant with a woody base whose annually produced stems die each year. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Hard Seed A physiological condition of seed in which some viable seeds do not immediately absorb water or oxygen and germination is delayed when a favorable environment is provided. Non-synonymous with seed dormancy. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Hardiness The ability to survive exposure to adverse conditions. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Hardpan A hardened soil layer in the lower A or in the B horizon caused by cementation of soil particles with organic matter or with materials such as silica, sesquioxides, or calcium carbonate. The hardness does not change appreciably with changes in moisture content, and pieces of the hard layer do not crumble in water. cf. caliche Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Harvest Removal of animal or vegetation products from an area of land. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Headfiring Ignition of a fire on the windward (upwind) side of a burn area, resulting in a fairly rapid moving fire. cf. backfiring Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Heavy Grazing A comparative term which indicates that the stocking rate of a pasture is relatively greater than that of other pastures. Often erroneously used to mean overuse. cf. light and moderate grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Hedged A term used to describe the appearance of woody plants that have been repeatedly browsed so as to appear artificially clipped. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Hedging The persistent browsing of terminal buds of browse species causing excessive lateral branching and a reduction in main stem growth. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Herb Any flowering plant except those developing persistent woody stems above ground. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Herbaceous 1. Non-woody plant growth. 2. A term often used to describe the flavors in wine or grapes which resemble leafy, or vegetative flavors. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Herbage The aboveground material of any herbaceous plant. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Herbage Allowance Weight of forage available per unit animal on the land at any instant. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Herbage Disappearance Rate The rate per unit area at which herbage leaves the standing crop due to grazing, senescence or other causes. Unit: kg/ha/d, or lbs/ac/d. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Herbage Growth Rate The rate of addition of new mass per unit area to the standing crop. Unit: kg/ha/d or lb/ac/d. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Herbicide (rangelands) A phytotoxic chemical used for killing or inhibiting the growth of plants. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Herbivore (rangelands) An animal that subsists principally or entirely on plants or plant materials. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Herd An assemblage of animals usually of the same species. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Herder One who tends livestock on a range. Usually applied to the person herding a band of sheep or goats. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Herding The handling or tending of a herd. cf. close, open and trail herding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Highlining Syn. Browseline Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Historical Climax The plant community considered to best typify the potential plant community of an ecological site prior to the advent of European man. May no longer be one of the potential plant communities for the site. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Holding Ground An area where livestock are often held during roundups. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Holistic Management Holistic Management is a practical, goal-oriented approach to the management of the ecosystem including the human, financial and biological resources. Holistic Management entails the use of a management model which incorporates a holistic view of land, people and other resources. Holistic Management is now the correct name for the approach formerly called Holistic Resource Management. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Home Range The area over which an animal normally travels in search of food. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Humic Mulch Decayed and fragmented residuum of fresh mulch. cf. mulch, humus Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Humus The organic fraction of soil in which decomposition is so far advanced that its original form is not distinguishable. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Hurdle System A term sometimes applied to the method of handling sheep by means of a wolf-proof fence. archaic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Hybrid (rangelands) Offspring of a cross between genetically dissimilar individuals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Hybrid Vigor The increased performance (rate of gain) associated with F1 crossbreeding. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ice-Cream Species An exceptionally palatable species sought and grazed frequently by livestock or game animals. Such species are often over utilized under proper grazing. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Increaser For a given plant community, those species that increase in amount as a result of a specific abiotic/biotic influence or management practice. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Indian Allotment Land held under the Indian Allotment Act of 1910, either patented or held in trust for an Indian by the government. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Indicator Species (1) Species that indicate the presence of certain environmental conditions, seral stages, or previous treatment. (2) One or more plant species selected to indicate a certain level of grazing use. cf. key species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Indigenous Born, growing, or produced naturally (native) in an area, region, or country. cf. endemic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Infestation Invasion by large numbers of parasites or pests. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Infiltration The flow of a fluid into a substance through pores of small openings. It connotes flow into a substance in contradistinction to the word percolation. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Infiltration rate The rate of movement of water from the soil surface into soil. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Infiltration Velocity The actual rate at which water enters the soil at any given time. It may be less than infiltration rate because of limited supply of water. Expressed in same units as infiltration rates. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ingesta Nutritive materials consumed by the animal. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Intensive Grazing Management Grazing management that attempts to increase production or utilization per unit area or production per animal through a relative increase in stocking rates, forage utilization, labor, resources, or capital. Intensive grazing management is not synonymous with rotation grazing. Grazing management can be intensified by using any one or more of a number of grazing methods that use relatively more labor or capital resources. cf. extensive grazing management Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Intermittent Grazing A method that imposed grazing for indefinite periods at irregular intervals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Interseeding Seeding into an established vegetation cover. Often is planting seeds into the center of narrow seedbed strips of variable spacing and prepared by mechanical or chemical methods. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Introduced Species A species not a part of the original fauna or flora of the area in question. cf. native and resident species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Invader Plant species that were absent in undisturbed portions of the original vegetation of a specific range site and will invade or increase following disturbance or continued heavy grazing. cf. increaser Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Invasion The migration of organisms from one area to another area and their establishment in the latter. cf. ecesis Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Isolated Land Land of one ownership enclosed within boundaries of another ownership. Often refers to land in private ownership within the boundaries of public land. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Karren Surface composed of blocks of limestone separated by narrow fissures. archaic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Karst A limestone plateau marked by sinks, or karst holes, interspersed with abrupt ridges and irregular protuberant rocks; usually underlain by caverns and underground streams. archaic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Key Area A relatively small portion of a range selected because of its location, use or grazing value as a monitoring point for grazing use. It is assumed that key areas, if properly selected, will reflect the overall acceptability of current grazing management over the range. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Key management Species Plant species on which management of a specific unit is based. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Key Species (1) Forage species whose use serves as an indicator to the degree of use of associated species. (2) Those species which must, because of their importance, be considered in the management program. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Kid Crop The number of kids produced by a given number of does, usually expressed in percent kids weaned of does exposed. cf. calf crop, lamb crop Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Kid House A small structure designed to give shelter to a newborn kid. The doe is staked so that she cannot abandon the kid. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Kind of Animal An animal species or species group such as sheep, cattle, goats, deer, horses, elk, antelope, etc. cf. class of animal Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Lamb Crop The number of lambs produced by a given number of ewes, usually expressed in percent of lambs weaned of ewes exposed. cf. calf crop, kid crop Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Lambing Ground Range reserved for grazing during lambing period. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Land The total natural and cultural environment within which production takes place; a broader term than soil. In addition to soil, its attributes include other physical conditions, such as mineral deposits, climate, and water supply; location in relation to centers of commerce, populations, and other land; the size of the individual tracts or holdings; and existing plant cover, works of improvement, and the like. Some use the term loosely in other senses; as defined above but without the economic or cultural criteria; especially in the expression "natural land"; as a synonym for "soil"; for the solid surface of the earth; and also for earthly surface formations, especially in geomorphological expression "land form." Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Land Capability Land capability, as originally used in the United States, is an expression of the effect of physical land conditions, including climate, on the total suitability for use without damage for crops that require regular tillage, for grazing, for woodland, and for wildlife. Land capability involves consideration of (1) the risks of land damage from erosion and other causes and (2) the difficulties in land use owing to physical land characteristics, including climate. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Land Use Incentives A method for implementing land use plans in which a governmental unit offers inducements, usually monetary, to private landowners for adopting certain land uses or practices. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Land Use Planning (rangelands) The process by which decisions are made on future land uses over extended time periods that are deemed to best serve the general welfare. Decision-making authorities on land uses are usually vested in state and local governmental units, but citizen participation in the planning process is essential for proper understanding and implementation, usually through zoning ordinances. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
LD50 The relative degree of toxicity of pesticides to warm-blooded animals defined as the single dosage by mouth that kills 50 percent of test animals, expressed as mg/kg of body weight. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Leaf Area Index (LAI) The ratio of the total upper leaf surface of the plant community to the corresponding ground area expressed as a proportion. LAI may exceed 1. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Legume (rangelands) Members of the plant family Fabaceae. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Lessee One who has specified rights or privileges under lease. Syn. Permittee Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Lessor One who leases specified rights or privileges. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
License See grazing license or permit. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Life-Form Characteristic form or appearance of species at maturity, e.g., tree, shrub, herb, etc. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Light Grazing A comparative term which indicates that the stocking rate of one pasture is relatively less than that of other pastures. Often erroneously used to mean under use. cf. heavy and moderate grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Lime (1) Calcium oxide. (2) All limestone-derived materials applied to neutralize acid soils. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Limiting Factor Any environmental factor which exists at suboptimal level and thereby prevents an organism from reaching its full biotic potential. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Lister A double-wing plow, the shares of which throw the soil in opposite directions, leaving the land with a series of alternate ridges and furrows. Lister bottoms are commonly used to open a furrow for interseeding native range. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Litter (rangelands) The uppermost layer of organic debris on the soil surface; essentially the freshly fallen or slightly decomposed vegetal material. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Livestock Domestic animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Livestock Exclusion Range that is closed to grazing by livestock. Syn. closed range Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Livestock Flexibility The ability to alter the number, kind, or class of animals within a livestock enterprise as warranted by variability in forage, economic, weather, or other conditions. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Livestock Management Application of technical principles and business methods to livestock production. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Livestock Production (1) The weight, number of animals, etc., that a particular range, seeded pasture, or management system produces. (2) The business of producing livestock. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Maintenance Burning The use of prescribed burning to maintain vegetation in a desired condition. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Maintenance Feeding Supplying feed to range animals when available forge is too limited to meet their minimum daily requirement. Usually necessitated by overuse or inclement weather. cf. emergency feeding and supplemental feeding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Management Area An area for which a single management plan is developed and applied. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Management Objective The objectives for which rangeland and rangeland resources are managed which includes specified uses accompanied by a description of the desired vegetation and the expected products and/or values. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Management Plan A program of action designed to reach a given set of objectives. cf. grazing management plan Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Management Site Potential The kinds or levels of productivity or values of a range site that can be achieved under various management prescriptions. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Management Unit A subdivision of a management area. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Marginal Land Land of questionable physical or economic capabilities for sustaining a specific use. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Marker (1) A colored or otherwise marked sheep in a range band. (2) Dye, foam, or paper strips to indicate area covered in earlier pass of sprayer. (3) An infertile (vasectomized) male animal, often equipped with a dye marker, used to identify ovulating females for artificial insemination. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Marking Any method, other than branding, of placing a sign on an animal for the purpose of identification. For example: ear slits, tags, wattles, etc. cf. brand, earmarking and tagging Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Marsh(land) Flat, wet, treeless land usually covered by water and dominated by marsh grasses, indigenous rushes, sedges, or other grass-like plants. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Mast Fruits and seed of shrubs, woody vines, trees, cacti, and other non-herbaceous vegetation available for animal consumption. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Mature Soil A soil with well developed characteristics produced by the natural processes of soil formation, and in equilibrium with its environment. cf. soil Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Meadow A tract of grassland where productivity of indigenous or introduced forage is modified due to characteristics of the landscape position or hydrology. May be characterized as: hay meadow, native meadow, mountain meadow, wet meadow, or other designations. cf. grassland, pasture, pastureland, rangeland Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Mesa A flat-topped mountain or other elevation bounded on at least one side by a steep cliff. Local in Southwest. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Migrant One that moves from place to place. Syn. Nomadic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Mixed Grazing Grazing by two or more species of grazing animals on the same land unit, not necessarily at the same time but within the same grazing season. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Mob Grazing In the management of a grazing unit, grazing by a relatively large number of animals at a high stocking density for a short time period. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Moderate Grazing A comparative term which indicates that the stocking rate of a pasture is between the rates of other pastures. Often erroneously used to mean proper use. cf. heavy and light grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Monitoring (rangelands) The orderly collection, analysis, and interpretation of resource data to evaluate progress toward meeting management objectives. This process must be conducted over time in order to determine whether or not management objectives are being met. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Morphology (rangelands) The form and structure of an organism, with special emphasis on external features. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Mottling Variation of coloration in soils as represented by localized spots, patches, or blotches of contrasting color. Commonly develops under alternating wet and dry periods with associated reduction and oxidation environments. Mottling generally indicates poor aeration and impeded drainage. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Mulch (n.) (1) A layer of dead plant material on the soil surface. cf. fresh and humic mulch. (2) An artificial layer of material such as paper or plastic on the soil surface. (v.) Cultural practice of placing rock, straw, asphalt, plastic or other material on the soil's surface as a surface cover. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Multiple Use Use of range for more than one purpose, i.e., grazing of livestock, wildlife production, recreation, watershed and timber production. Not necessarily the combination of uses that will yield the highest economic return or greatest unit output. Use of range for more than one purpose, i.e., grazing of livestock, wildlife production, recreation, watershed and timber production. Not necessarily the combination of uses that will yield the highest economic return or greatest unit output. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Native Species A species which is part of the original fauna or flora of the area in question. Syn. Indigenous. cf. introduced and resident species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Natural Pasture Syn. RangeOne U.S. technical agency defines this term as formerly forested land that has been allowed to revert to native forage species and is managed primarily for production of native plants for grazing. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Natural Potential Occasionally used as a synonym for climax with reference to range vegetation. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Naturalized Species A species not native to an area but which adapted to that area and has established a stable or expanding population. Does not require artificial inputs for survival and reproduction. Examples: cheatgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, starling, etc. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Net Primary Production The net increase in plant biomass within a specified area and time interval, i.e. primary production minus that used in metabolic processes. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Niche (rangelands) The ecological role of a species in a community. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Nomadic Pertaining to the habit of wandering from place to place, usually within a well-defined territory. Syn. Migrant Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Non-Selective Grazing Utilization of forage by grazing animals so that all forage species and/or all plants within a species are grazed. cf. mob grazing. Non-selective grazing is generally attempted by using high stocking rates or high stocking densities during short time periods. In practice, non-selective grazing is achieved rarely. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Nonuse (1) Absence of grazing use on current year's forage production. (2) Lack of exercise, temporarily, of a grazing privilege on grazing lands. (3) An authorization to refrain, temporarily, from placing livestock on public ranges without loss of preference for future consideration. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Noxious Species A plant species that is undesirable because it conflicts, restricts, or otherwise causes problems under management objectives. Not to be confused with species declared noxious by laws concerned with plants that are weedy in cultivated crops and on range. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Nurse Crop A temporary crop seeded at or near the time primary plant species are seeded to provide protection and otherwise help to insure establishment of the latter. cf. companion crop, preparatory crop Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Nutrient (rangelands) Any food constituent or ingredient that is required for or aids in the support of life. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Nutrition (rangelands) Ingestion, digestion or assimilation of food by plants or animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Nutritive Value Relative capacity of a given forage or other feedstuff to furnish nutrition for animals. In range management, the term is usually prefixed by high, low or moderate. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Open Herding Allowing a herd to spread naturally while grazing. cf. free ranging Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Open Range (1) Range which has not been fenced into management units. (2) All suitable rangeland of an area upon which grazing is permitted. (3) Untimbered rangeland. (4) Range on which the livestock owner has unlimited access without benefit of land ownership or leasing. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Opening Date (1) The date on which an established grazing season begins. (2) The date on which a legally established hunting or fishing season begins. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Operating Unit Syn. Ranch Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Opportunistic Species A species adapted for utilizing variable, unpredictable or transient environments; tends to be characteristic of ephemeral plants. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Opportunity Cost The financial returns given up by not putting a factor of production, particularly capital, to a different use. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Organism Any living entity; plant, animal, fungus, etc. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Orphan An offspring whose mother has died. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Outcrop The exposure of bedrock or strata projecting through the overlying cover of detritus and soil. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Oven-Dry Weight The weight of a substance after it has been dried in an oven at a specific temperature to equilibrium. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Overgrazed Range A range which has experienced loss of plant cover and accelerated erosion as a result of heavy grazing or browsing pressure. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Overgrazing Continued heavy grazing which exceeds the recovery capacity of the community and creates a deteriorated range. cf. overuse Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Overland Flow Surface runoff of water following a precipitation event. cf. runoff Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Overstocking Placing a number of animals on a given area that will result in overuse if continued to the end of the planned grazing period. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Overstory The upper canopy or canopies of plants. Usually refers to trees, tall shrubs and vines. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Overuse Utilizing an excessive amount of the current year's growth which, if continued, will result in range deterioration. cf. overgrazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
P.L.S. Abbreviation for pure live seed. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Paddock (1) A grazing area that is a subdivision of a grazing management unit, and is enclosed and separated from other areas by a fence or barrier. (2) A relatively small enclosure used as an exercise and saddling area for horses, generally adjacent to stalls or stable. cf. grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Palatability The relish with which a particular species or plant part is consumed by an animal. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pan (Soils) Horizon or layer in soils that is strongly compacted, indurated, or very high in clay content. cf. caliche, claypan, hardpan Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Park (1) A relatively small opening of grassland in a forest. (2) A land area reserved and managed to protect an outstanding landscape and to make it available for public enjoyment. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Partial Budgeting (rangelands) A limited budgeting procedure used to evaluate a proposed investment in an existing earning enterprise requiring only that additional costs and returns associated with the investment be considered; results often expressed in terms of an internal rate of return. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Partido System In the southwestern United States, a form of operation in which sheep or cattle owned by the patron are let out on shares to a partidero, who cares for them and returns part of the increase or income to the owner. archaic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pasture (1) A grazing area enclosed and separated from other areas by fencing or other barriers; the management unit for grazing land. (2) Forage plants used as food for grazing animals. (3) Any area devoted to the production of forage, native or introduced, and harvested by grazing. (4) A group of subunits grazed within a rotational grazing system. (5) v. To feed on pasture; to use as pasture. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pasture Planting Establishing adapted herbaceous species on land to be treated and grazed as pasture. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pastureland Grazing lands, planted primarily to introduced or domesticated native forage species, which receive periodic renovation and/or cultural treatments such as tillage, fertilization, mowing, weed control and irrigation. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pedestaled A condition where the soil has eroded from around individual plants or other objects such as small rocks, leaving them on small pedestals of soil. Sometimes the result of frost heaving. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Percent Use Grazing use of current growth, usually expressed as a percent of the current growth (by weight) which has been removed. cf. degree of use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Percolation The flow of liquid through a porous substance. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Perennial Plant A plant that has a life span of 3 or more years. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Period of Occupation The length of time that a specific land area is occupied, whether by one animal group or by two or more animal groups in succession. cf. first-last grazing, forward creep grazing, period of stay. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Period of Stay The length of time that a particular animal group occupies a specific land area. Period of occupation and period of stay differentiate between the total time a specific land area is utilized and the time that a particular group of animals is using said land area. The term is useful in describing grazing methods such as first-last grazing. cf. first-last grazing, forward creep grazing, period of occupation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Permanent Water A watering place which supplies water at all times throughout the year or grazing season. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Permittee One who holds a permit to graze livestock on state, federal, or certain privately owned lands. Syn. Lessee Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pesticide (rangelands) Any chemical agent such as herbicide, fungicide, insecticide, etc., used for control of specific organisms. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Phenology the study of the time of appearance of characteristic periodic phenomena in the life cycle of organisms in nature, e.g., migration in birds and flowering and leaf-fall in plants, particularly as these phenomena are influenced by environmental factors. Phenology especially involves the effects of temperature or day length. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Phenotype (rangelands) The physical appearance of an individual as contrasted with genetic makeup or genotype. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Phenoxy Herbicide Syn. translocated herbicide Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Photo Interpretation The art and science of identifying objects and conditions from photographs. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Photo Scale Photo scale, or representative fraction (RF), is the ratio of the distance measured on the photograph to the distance measured at the ground datum. Photo scale can also be defined as the ratio of the focal length of the camera to the height of the lens above the ground datum at the moment of exposure.
Photogrammetry Measurements made from aerial photographs including area measurements, distance, direction, height or differences in elevation or slope and the processes of mapping. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Photopoint An identified point from which photographs are taken at periodic intervals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Photosensitization A non-contagious disease resulting from the abnormal reaction of light-colored skin to sunlight after a photodynamic agent has been absorbed through the animal's system. Grazing certain kinds of vegetation or ingesting certain molds under specific conditions causes photosensitization. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Phylogeny The origin and evolution of higher taxa. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Phytomass Total amount of plants (including dead attached parts) above and below ground in an area at a given time. cf. biomass Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Phytomer One modular unit of a plant; consisting of the leaf, sheath (or petiole) and internode. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Phytotoxic Toxic to plants. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Picture Point A point that can be exactly identified on an aerial photograph. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pioneer Species A plant or animal capable of establishing itself in a bare or barren area and initiating an ecological cycle. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pitting Making shallow pits or basins of suitable capacity and distribution on range to reduce overland flow from rainfall or snowmelt. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plain A broad stretch of relatively level treeless land. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plant Association A kind of climax plant community consisting of stands with essentially the same dominant species in corresponding layers. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plant Community An assemblage of plants occurring together at any point in time, thus denoting no particular successional status. A unit of vegetation. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plant Community Type See community type. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plant Succession Vegetation change. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plant Symbol An abbreviation used to indicate the genus and species of a plant. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plant Vigor Plant health. cf. plant vigor index Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plant Vigor Index An estimate of plant vigor based on measurement of one or more attributes. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Poisonous Plant A plant containing or producing substances that cause sickness, death or a deviation from the normal state of health of animals. cf. toxic plant species Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Poloxalene An anti-foaming agent fed to prevent legume bloat in ruminants. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Potential Natural Community See potential natural vegetation. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Potential Natural Vegetation A historical term originally defined by A. W. Kuchler as the stable vegetation community which could occupy a site under current climatic conditions without further influence by people. Often used interchangeably with Potential Natural Community. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Potential Plant Community One of usually several plant communities that may become established on an ecological site under the present environmental conditions, either with or without interference by man. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Prairie Nearly level or rolling grassland, originally treeless, and usually characterized by fertile soil. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Precipitation (rangelands) Condensation from the atmosphere, falling as rainfall, snow, hail or sleet. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Preference See grazing preference. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Preferred Species Species that are preferred by animals and are grazed by first choice. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Premature Grazing Grazing before range readiness; may be allowable if done infrequently and followed by adequate rest. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Preparatory Crop A residue-producing temporary crop utilized as part of seedbed preparation to provide mulch into which forage plants can be direct seeded. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Prescribed Burning The use of fire as a management tool under specified conditions for burning a predetermined area. cf. maintenance burning Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Primary Production The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. It is represented by the total quantity of organic material produced within a given period by vegetation. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Primary Productivity The rate of conversion of solar to chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Primary Range Areas which animals prefer to use when management is limited. Primary range will be overused before secondary range is fully used. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Prior Use Grazing use preceding a specific time. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Priority Use The order of right or privilege to use land based on occupancy, use prior to a certain date, need or other criteria. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pristine A state of ecological stability or condition existing in the absence of direct disturbance by modern man. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Problem Area An area which is difficult to manage because of its shape, size, accessibility or other limiting factors. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Producer An organism that can use radiant energy to synthesize organic substances from inorganic materials, e.g. green plants. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Productivity The rate of production per unit area, usually expressed in terms of weight or energy. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Propagule Any part of an organism, produced sexually or asexually that is capable of giving rise to a new individual. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Proper Grazing The act of continuously obtaining proper use. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Proper Stocking Placing a number of animals on a given area that will result in proper use at the end of the planned grazing period. Continued proper stocking will lead to proper grazing. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Proper Use A degree of utilization of current year's growth which, if continued, will achieve management objectives and maintain or improve the long-term productivity of the site. Proper use varies with time and systems of grazing. Syn. proper utilization, proper grazing use, cf. allowable use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Proper Use Factor An index to the grazing use that may be made of a specific forage species, based on a system of range management that will maintain the economically important forage species, or achieve other management objectives such as maintenance of watersheds, recreation values, etc. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Proper Woodland Use Grazing, where woodland grazing is a planned use, at an intensity that will maintain adequate cover for soil protection and maintain or improve the quantity of trees and forage. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pure Live Seed Purity and germination of seed expressed in percent; may be calculated by formula: P.L.S.= % germination x % purity x 100, e.g. (0.91 x 0.96) x 100 = 87.36%. Abbr., PLS or P.L.S. cf. seed purity Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Put-and-Take Stocking The use of variable animal numbers during a grazing period or grazing season, with a periodic adjustment in animal numbers in an attempt of maintaining desired sward management criteria, i.e., a desired quantity of forage, degree of defoliation, or grazing pressure. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Quiescence A temporary resting phase characterized by reduced activity, inactivity or cessation of development. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rain Shadow The region of diminished rainfall on the lee side of a mountain range, where the rainfall is noticeably less than on the windward side. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Raintrap Syn. guzzler; catchment basin; cf. trick tank Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ranch An establishment or firm with specific boundaries together with its lands and improvements, used for the grazing and production of domestic livestock and/or wildlife. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rancher One who owns, leases or manages a ranch. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range (n.) Land supporting indigenous vegetation that either is grazed or that has the potential to be grazed, and is managed as a natural ecosystem. Range includes grassland, grazable forestland, shrubland and pastureland. Range is not a use. (adj.) Modifies resources, products, activities, practices, and phenomena pertaining to rangeland. cf. rangeland, forested range, grazable woodland, shrubland, pastureland Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Administration The conduct of the affairs of a range. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Appraisal The classification and valuation of rangeland from an economic or production standpoint. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Condition Historically, has usually been defined in one of two ways: (a) a generic term relating to present status of a unit of range in terms of specific values or potentials. Specific values or potentials must be stated. (b) the present state of vegetation of a range site in relation to the climax (natural potential) plant community for that site. It is an expression of the relative degree to which the kinds, proportions, and amounts of plants in a plant community resemble that of the climax plant community for the site. This term is being phased out. Preferred terms are successional status and range similarity index. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Condition Class One of a series of arbitrary categories used to classify range condition as that term has been variously defined. See range condition. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Degradation The process that leads to an irreversible reduction in capability of an ecological site to produce vegetation. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Discipline A branch of knowledge pertaining to the use and management of range. Syn. range management Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Examiner A person who collects and compiles information pertaining to range management and who prepares grazing management plans. Syn. range manager; range conservationist. Archaic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Forage Forage produced on rangeland. cf. forage, cured forage Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Improvement Any activity or program on or relating to rangelands which is designed to improve production of forage, change vegetation composition, control patterns of use, provide water, stabilize soil and water conditions, or provide habitat for livestock and wildlife. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Lambing Permitting females to drop their offspring on the range under approximately natural conditions of shelter and forage. cf. shed lambing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Management A distinct discipline founded on ecological principles and dealing with the use of rangelands and range resources for a variety of purposes. These purposes include use as watersheds, wildlife habitat, grazing by livestock, recreation, and aesthetics, as well as other associated uses. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Plan Syn. management plan Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Readiness The defined stage of plant growth at which grazing may begin under a specific management plan without permanent damage to vegetation or soil. Usually applied to seasonal range. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Research A systematic, critical inquiry seeking facts and knowledge pertinent of range. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Reseeding Syn. range seeding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Resources Syn. related resources Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Science The organized body of knowledge upon which the practice of range management is based. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Seeding The process of establishing vegetation by the artificial dissemination of seed. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Site Syn. of ecological site on rangeland Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range States In the U.S., generally considered as the seventeen western states excluding Alaska and Hawaii. In these states, the major portion of the land is used for the production of livestock from range. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Type An historical term that refers to, and only to, the 18 standard range vegetation types recognized by the 1937 Task Force (Interagency Range Survey Committee, 1937). Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range User The individual or organization using rangeland for a specific purpose. Most commonly associated with one having a permit to graze livestock on public land, but a hunter may also be considered a range user. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rangeland (rangelands) Land on which the indigenous vegetation (climax or natural potential) is predominantly grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, or shrubs and is managed as a natural ecosystem. If plants are introduced, they are managed similarly. Rangeland includes natural grasslands, savannas, shrublands, many deserts, tundras, alpine communities, marshes and meadows. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rangeland Health The degree to which the integrity of the soil, the vegetation, the water, and air as well as the ecological processes of the rangeland ecosystem is balanced and sustained. Integrity is defined as: Maintenance of the structure and functional attributes characteristic of a particular locale, including normal variability. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rangeland Hydrology The study of hydrological principles as applied to range ecosystems. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rangeland Inventory (rangelands) (v.) The systematic acquisition and analysis of resource information needed for planning and for management of rangeland. (n.) The information acquired through range inventory. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rangeland Remote Sensing The detection, identification and assessment of condition of objects on rangelands with a camera, or other imaging device, situated at an appreciable distance from the imaged subject.
Rangeland Renovation Improving rangeland by mechanical, chemical or other means. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rangeland Similarity Index The present state of vegetation and soil protection of an ecological site in relation to the historic climax plant community for the site. Syn. range condition Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ration Grazing Confining animals to an area of grazing land to provide the daily allowance of forage per animal. cf. strip grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Reclamation Restoration of a site or resource to a desired condition to achieve management objectives or stated goals. cf. revegetation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Reconnaissance A general examination or survey of a region with reference to its main features, usually as a preliminary act of a more detailed survey. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Recreation Area A developed or undeveloped land area reserved and managed for recreational purposes. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rejuvenation (Browse) Treatments such as mechanical, pyric or even chemical, applied to woody plants to encourage new growth as sprouts or seedlings available for browsing. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Related Resources Those resources which bear relationship to one another because of common location and interdependency, such as range, game, recreation, watershed, soil, timber, etc. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Relict A remnant or fragment of the climax plant community that remains from a former period when it was more widely distributed. Syn. Pristine Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Remote Sensing The measurement or acquisition of information of some property of an object or phenomenon by a recording device that is not a physical or intimate contact with the object or phenomenon under study. Often involves aerial photography or satellite imagery.
Repeated Seasonal Grazing A grazing strategy in which different kinds of pastures are arranged in a series and each is grazed at the same time each year, often for less than the full feasible grazing season to provide a special use. Syn. seasonal grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Reseeding Syn. range seeding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Resident Species Species common to an area without distinction as to being native or introduced. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Residue Forage remaining on the land as a consequence of harvest. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Resource Value Rating (RVR) The value of vegetation present on an ecological site for a particular use or benefit. RVR's may be established for each plant community capable of being produced on an ecological site, including exotic or cultivated species. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rest To leave an area of grazing land ungrazed or unharvested for a specific time, such as a year, a growing season or a specified period required within a particular management practice. Syn. spell. cf. rest period, ungrazed, deferment Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rest Period The length of time that a specific land area is allowed to rest. Syn. spelling period, cf. rest Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rest-Rotation A grazing management scheme in which rest periods for individual pastures, paddocks or grazing units, generally for the full growing season, are incorporated into a grazing rotation. cf. grazing system. See rotational stocking Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Restricted Area An area on which grazing tenure is limited. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Retrogression An historical term used by some ecologists to mean succession in reverse. According to Clements (1916), however, retrogression is synonymous with destruction and denudation of a community. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Revegetation Establishing or re-establishing desirable plants on areas where desirable plants are absent or of inadequate density, by management alone (natural revegetation) or by seeding or transplanting (artificial revegetation). cf. range seeding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rhizome A horizontal underground stem, usually sending out roots and aboveground shoots from the nodes. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Riding Down Pushing over small trees and shrubs by livestock or wildlife in order to reach the browse. archaic Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Riparian Referring to or relating to areas adjacent of water or influenced by free water associated with streams or rivers on geologic surfaces occupying the lowest position on a watershed. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Riparian Community Type A recurring, classified, defined and recognizable assemblage of riparian plant species. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Riparian Ecosystems (1) Those assemblages of plants, animals, and aquatic communities whose presences can be either directly or indirectly attributed to factors that are water-influenced or related. (2) Interacting system between aquatic and terrestrial situations identified by soil characteristics, and distinctive vegetation that requires or tolerates free or unbound water. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Riparian Species Plant species occurring within the riparian zone. Obligate species require the environmental conditions within the riparian zone; facultative species tolerate the environmental conditions, and may occur away from the riparian zone. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Riparian Vegetation Plant communities dependent upon the presence of free water near the ground surface (high water table). Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Riparian Zone The banks and adjacent areas of water bodies, water courses, seeps and springs whose waters provide soil moisture sufficiently in excess of that otherwise available locally so as to provide a more moist habitat than that of contiguous flood plains and uplands. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ripping The mechanical penetration and shearing of range soils to depths of 8 to 18 inches for the purpose of breaking hardpan layers to facilitate penetration of plant roots, water, organic matter, and nutrients. A range improvement practice used where native grasses of a rhizomatous nature can spread into the ripped soil. cf. chiseling Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rodent Any animal of the order Rodentia, and commonly includes the order Lagomorpha, many of which influence the range through such habits as grazing, burrowing, etc. Important range rodents include pocket gophers, prairie dogs, ground squirrels, certain terrestrial mice, kangaroo rats, jackrabbits and marmots. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rodent Control Measures taken to reduce or control the rodent population of a given area. This may apply to a specific species or rodents in general. cf. rodent Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rotation Grazing A grazing scheme where animals are moved from one grazing unit (paddock) in the same group of grazing units to another without regard to specific graze: rest periods or levels of plant defoliation. cf. grazing system Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rotational Deferred Systematic rotation of deferment among land areas within a grazing management unit. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rotational Stocking A grazing method that utilizes recurring periods of grazing and rest among two or more paddocks in a grazing management unit throughout the period when grazing is allowed. The lengths of the grazing and of the rest periods should be defined. Words such as controlled or intensive are sometimes used in an attempt to describe the degree of grazing management applied to this grazing method. These words are not synonyms for rotational stocking. cf. continuous stocking Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rough (1) The accumulation of mature living and dead vegetation, especially grasses and forbs, on forest range, marshland or prairie. (2) May refer to land surface with uneven terrain. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Roughage (rangelands) Plant materials containing a low proportion of nutrients per unit of weight and usually bulky and coarse, high in fiber and low in total digestible nutrients. Roughage may be classed as either dry or green. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Roundup (rangelands) The purposeful gathering of animals into a herd by man. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ruderal A plant inhabiting disturbed sites. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rumen (rangelands) The large, first compartment of the stomach of a ruminant from which ingested food is regurgitated for re-chewing and in which digestion is aided by symbiotic action of microbes. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ruminant (rangelands) Even-toed, hoofed mammals that chew the cud and have a 4-chamber stomach., i.e. Ruminantia. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Runoff The total stream discharge of water, including both surface and subsurface flow, usually expressed in acre-feet of water yield. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Runoff Groundwater Precipitation which percolates through the soil mantle to the groundwater table and is eventually discharged into a stream. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Runoff Surface That part of runoff that travels over the soil surface to a stream channel. Syn. overland flow Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rustler (1) An energetic animal well able to shift for itself. (2) A thief of livestock. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sacrifice Area A portion of the range, irrespective of site, that is unavoidably overgrazed to obtain efficient overall use of the management area. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sacrifice Site A range site that is unavoidably overgrazed to obtain efficient overall use of the management area. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Salt Ground An area where salt is placed for use by livestock or game; often relocated periodically to achieve improved animal distribution. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Salt Lick Spots containing unusually large quantities of salts in the soil where animals consume the soil to obtain salt. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Salting (1) Providing salt as a mineral supplement for animals. (2) Placing salt on the range in such a manner as to improve distribution of livestock grazing. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sample (rangelands) A part of a population taken to estimate a parameter of the whole population. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sand Tank A water development constructed by placing a dam in a rock-bound channel and bonded to bedrock, and using the sand/gravel trap above the dam for water storage. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Savanna Grassland with scattered trees or shrubs; often a transitional type between true grassland and forestland, and accompanied by a climate with alternating wet and dry seasons. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Scrub Vegetation dominated by short, stunted woody plants growing thickly together or intermingled with cacti. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seasonal Distribution (1) The progressive grazing in a sequence of moves from one part of a range to another as vegetation develops. (2) The normal occurrence of precipitation at different periods of the year. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seasonal Grazing Grazing restricted to one or more specific seasons of the year. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seasonal Use (1) Synonymous with seasonal grazing, (2) Seasonal preference of certain plant species by animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seasonal Zone An area of the range which livestock and wildlife prefer at certain seasons. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Secondary Range Range which is lightly used or unused by livestock under minimal management and will ordinarily not be fully used until the primary range has been overused. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed A fertilized ripened ovule of a flowering plant. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed Certification A system whereby seed of plant cultivars is produced, harvested and marketed under authorized regulation to insure seed of high quality and genetic purity. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed Dormant Live seed in a non-germinative condition because of (1) internal inhibitions in seed, i.e., hard seed, or (2) unfavorable environmental conditions. cf. seed, hard Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed Dribbler A metering device that drops seed onto the track of a crawler tractor for the purpose of being carried forward and pressed into the ground as the tractor passes. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed Hard Live seed in a physiological condition that prevents or delays germination, even when a favorable environment exists. cf. seed, dormant Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed Inoculation Treatment of legume seed with rhizobium bacteria before planting to enhance subsequent nitrogen fixation. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed Purity The percentage of the desired species in relation to the total quantity, including other species, weed seed, and foreign matter. cf. pure live seed Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed Scarification Mechanical or acid treatment of seed-coats to improve water absorption and enhance germination. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seedbed Preparation (rangelands) Soil treatment prior to seeding to: (1) reduce or eliminate existing vegetation, (2) reduce the effective supply of weed seed, (3) modify physical soil characteristics and (4) enhance temperature and water characteristics of the microenvironment. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seep Wet areas, normally not flowing, arising from an underground water source. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Selective Grazing The grazing of certain plant species, individual plants, or plant parts on the range to the exclusion of others. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Selectivity Ratio The fraction or decimal indicating the proportion of the diet contributed by a plant species, species group, or plant part; an expression of relative preference. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Semiarid A term applied to regions or climates where moisture is normally greater than under arid conditions, but still definitely limits the production of vegetation. The upper limit of average annual precipitation in the cold, semiarid regions is as low as 15 inches (380 mm), whereas in warm tropical regions it is as high as 45-50 inches (1,100-1,300mm). Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sendero A path or lane cut or dozed through brushy areas to provide access by livestock, pedestrians, or vehicles. A term commonly used in the Southwest. cf. browse way Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sequence Grazing The grazing of two or more land units in succession that differ in forage species composition. Sequence grazing takes advantage of differences among forage species combinations, grown in separate areas for management purposes, to extend forage quality and/or quantity, or achieve some other management objective. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seral Refers to species or communities that are eventually replaced by other species or communities within a sere. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seral Community The relatively transitory communities that develop under plant succession. Syn. seral stage Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seral Stages The relatively transitory communities that develop under plant succession. Syn. seral community Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sere The whole series of communities that develop in a given situation during plant succession. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Set Stocking The practice of allowing a fixed number of animals on a fixed area of land during the time when grazing is allowed. cf. variable stocking Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sex Ratio The ratio existing between the number of male and female animals within a given herd, band or population. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Shearing Plant A general term used to describe the buildings, machinery, pens and other appurtenances of an establishment where animals are shorn. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Shed Lambing Housing and feeding females during the time offspring are dropped. cf. range lambing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Shinnery Range vegetation having dwarf oaks as dominants. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Short-Duration Grazing Grazing management whereby relatively short periods (days) of grazing and associated non-grazing are applied to range or pasture units. Periods of grazing and non-grazing are based upon plant growth characteristics. Short duration grazing has nothing to do with intensity of grazing use. cf. grazing system Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Shrub A plant that has persistent, woody stems and a relatively low growth habit, and that generally produces several basal shoots instead of a single bole. It differs from a tree by its low stature (generally less than 5 meters, or 16 feet) and non-arborescent form. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Shrubland Land on which the vegetation is dominated by shrubs. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Silvo-Pastoral Preferred term is forest grazing. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Site The place or seat of any specified thing. cf. administrative site, range site. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Site Conservation Rating (SCR) An assessment of the protection afforded a site by the current vegetation against loss of potential. SCR greater than Site Conservation Threshold (SCT) is considered a "satisfactory" SCR and below SCT is considered an "unsatisfactory" SCR. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Site Conservation Threshold (SCT) The kind, amount and/or pattern of vegetation needed as a minimum on a given site to prevent accelerated erosion. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Skylining The development of a line of uniform height of vegetation which gives an illusion of a horizon usually associated with excessive use of browse. May refer to either top line or under line. Syn. Highlining Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Slope A slant or incline of the land surface, measured in degrees from the horizontal, or in the percent (defined as the number of feet or meters change in elevation per 100 of the same units of horizontal distance); may be further characterized by direction (exposure). Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Snow Fence A fence used to retard or alter the movement of snow by wind. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sod Vegetation which grows so as to form a mat of soil and vegetation. Syn. Turf Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sod Grasses Stoloniferous or rhizomatous grasses which form a sodor turf. cf. bunchgrass Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sod Seeding Direct drilling of seed on sites on which no seedbed preparation had been made. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Soil (1) The unconsolidated mineral and organic material on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants. (2) The unconsolidated mineral matter on the surface of the earth that has been subjected to and influenced by genetic and environmental factors of parent material, climate (including moisture and temperature effects), macro- and micro-organisms, and topography, all acting over a period of time and producing a product-soil that differs from the material from which it was derived in many physical, chemical, biological, and morphological properties and characteristics. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Species (rangelands) A taxon or rank species; in the hierarchy or biological classification, the category below genus. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Species Composition The proportions of various plant species in relation to the total on a given area. It may be expressed in terms of cover, density, weight, etc. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Spot Grazing Repeated grazing of small areas while adjacent areas are lightly grazed or unused. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Spray Drift The movement of airborne spray particles from the intended area of application, i.e., horizontal displacement. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Spreader Dam Syn. Waterspreader Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Spring Flowing water originating from an underground source. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Spring-Fall Range Range that is grazed primarily during the spring and fall. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Standing Crop The total amount of plant material per unit of space at a given time. Often is divided into above ground and below ground portions and further may be modified by the descriptors "dead" or "live" to more accurately define the specific type of biomass. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stem The culm or branch of a plant. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Steppe Semi-arid grassland characterized by grasses occurring in scattered bunches with other herbaceous vegetation and occasional woody species. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stock (rangelands) Livestock. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stock Driveway Syn. Driveway Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stock Trail A trail constructed across a natural barrier to permit movement of livestock to otherwise inaccessible areas. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stocking Density The relationship between number of animals and the specific unit of land being grazed at any one point in time. May be expressed in animal units per unit of land area (animal units at a specific time/area of land). cf. stocking rate Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stocking Plan The number and kind of livestock assigned to one or more given management areas or units for a specified period. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stocking Rate The relationship between the number of animals and the grazing management unit utilized over a specified time period. May be expressed as animal units per unit of land area (animal units over a described time period/area of land). cf. stocking density Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stockpiling Allowing standing forage to accumulate for grazing at a later period, often for fall and winter grazing after dormancy. cf. cured forage Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stockpiling Forage (v.) To allow forage to accumulate for grazing at a later period. Forage is often stockpiled for autumn and winter grazing, after or during dormancy or semi-dormancy, but stockpiling may occur at any time during the year as a part of a management plan. Stockpiling can be described in terms of deferment and forage accumulation. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stockpond A water impoundment made by constructing a dam or by excavating a dugout or both, to provide water for livestock and wildlife. cf. catchment, guzzler; trick tank Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stockwater Development Development of a new or improved source of stockwater supply, such as well, spring, pond, together with storage and delivery system. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stolon A horizontal stem which grows along the surface of the soil and roots at the nodes. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Strip Grazing Confining animals to an area of grazing land to be grazed in a relatively short period of time, where the paddock size is varied to allow access to a specific land area. Strip grazing may or may not be a form of rotational stocking, depending on whether or not specific paddocks are utilized for recurring periods of grazing and rest. cf. rotational stocking, ration grazing Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stubble The basal portion of herbaceous plants remaining after the top portion has been harvested either artificially or by grazing animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Submarginal Land Land that is either physically or economically incapable of indefinitely sustaining a certain use. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Substitution Ratio Number of animals or animal-units of one kind or class that can be substituted for another kind or class to meet a specified management objective. Syn . animal-substitution ratio Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Subunit The subdivisions of a single grazing system. cf. paddock, pasture Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Succession The progressive replacement of plant communities on a site which leads to the potential natural plant community; i.e., attaining stability. Primary succession entails simultaneous succession of soil from patent material and vegetation. Secondary succession occurs following disturbances on sites that previously supported vegetation, and entails plant succession on a more mature soil. cf. plant succession Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Successional Status The present state of vegetation and soil protection of an ecological site in relation to the potential natural community for the site. Successional status is the expression of the relative degree to which kinds, proportions and amounts of plants in a community resemble that of the potential natural community. If classes or ratings are used, they should be described in successional rather than utilization terms. For example, some agencies are utilizing four classes of successional status ratings (early seral, midseral, late seral, potential natural community) of vegetation corresponding to 0-25%, 26-50%, 51-75% and 76-100% of the potential natural community standard. Soil status is a measure of present vegetation and litter cover relative to the amount of cover needed on the site to prevent accelerated erosion. This term is not used by all agencies. cf. range condition Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Summer Range Range, particularly in the mountainous western states, that is grazed primarily during the summer growing season. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Supplement (rangelands) Nutritional additive (salt, protein, phosphorus, etc.) intended to remedy deficiencies of the range diet. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Supplemental Feeding Supplying concentrates or harvested feed to correct deficiencies of the range diet. Often erroneously used to mean emergency feeding. cf. maintenance feeding Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Surfactant (from surface active agent) Material used in herbicide formulations to bring about emulsifiability, spreading, wetting, sticking, dispersibility, solubilization or other surface-modifying properties. Also see adjuvant. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Suspension Fence Non-woven wire fence comprised of high tension wire supported by rigid stays and widely spaced posts to which wire is not firmly attached. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sustained Yield Production of specified resources or commodities at a given rate for a designated unit of time. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Swale An area of low and sometimes wet land. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sward A population of herbaceous plants, characterized by a relatively short habit of growth and relatively continuous ground cover, including both above and below ground parts. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Synecology A subdivision of ecology that deals with the study of groups of organisms associated as a unit, i.e., communities. cf. autecology Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Tag (rangelands) (1) A label attached, usually to the animal, for identification. (2) A discolored and dirty part of a fleece. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Tagging (1) Clipping manured and dirty locks from sheep. (2) The process of attaching Identifying tags to animals. cf. brand and marking Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Tagging Chute A narrow enclosure (of board, pole or steel construction) to hold animals during tagging. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Tank A reservoir of any construction for water storage. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Taproot System A plant root system dominated by a single large root, normally growing straight downward, from which most of the smaller roots spread out laterally. cf. fibrous root system Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Temporary License or Permit A document authorizing grazing of a certain number of livestock on public lands during an emergency or for a certain period, terminable at the end of such period and with no guarantee of renewal in whole or in part. cf. grazing license or permit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Term License or Permit A document which authorizes grazing on public lands for a stated number of years as contrasted with an annual or temporary license or permit. cf. grazing license or permit Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Terracing Mechanical movement of soil along the horizontal contour of a slope to produce an earthen dike to retain water and diminish the potential of soil erosion. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Tiller The asexual development of a new plant from a meristematic region of the parent plant. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Timberland Land on which the natural potential vegetation is forest. It may be managed primarily for the production and harvest of timber. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Total Annual Yield The total annual production of all plant species of a plant community. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Toxic Plant Species A species of plant which may accumulate or produce a substance toxic to animals. cf. poisonous plant Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Toxicant The chemical ingredient(s) which may injure or cause death in either plant or animal life exposed to it. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Trace elements Minerals needed in very small amounts. In plants, these would include micronutrients such as the elements iron, boron, and zinc. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Trail A well-defined path created by repeated passage of animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Trail Herding Directing and controlling the movement of a group of livestock on restricted overland routes. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Trailing (1) Controlled directional movement of livestock. cf. drive, (2) Natural trailing is the habit of livestock or wildlife repeatedly treading in the same line or path. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Trampling Treading underfoot; the damage to plants or soil brought about by movements or congestion of animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Translocated Herbicide A herbicide which is moved within the plant from the point of entry. Syn. phenoxy herbicide Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Trap A relatively small enclosure used as a temporary holding or catching area in the handling and management of livestock. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Tree A woody perennial, usually single stemmed plant that has a definite crown shape and reaches a mature height of at least 16 feet (5 meters). There is no clearcut distinction between trees and shrubs. Some plants, such as oaks (Quercus spp.) may grow as either trees or shrubs. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Trend The direction of change in an attribute as observed over time. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Trend (Range Trend) Trend in range condition or successional status should be described as up, down or not apparent. Up represents a change toward climax or potential natural community; down represents a change away from climax or potential natural community; and not apparent indicates there is no recognizable change. This category is often recorded as static or stable. There is no necessary correlation between trends in resource value ratings, vegetation management status, and trend in range condition or successional status. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Trespass Syn. grazing trespass Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Trick Tank A modification of a guzzler in which the collection basin is elevated and the storage tank is located directly below. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Trophic Levels The sequence of steps in a food chain or food pyramid, from producer to primary, secondary or tertiary consumer. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Tundra Land areas in arctic and alpine regions devoid of large trees, varying from bare ground to various types of vegetation consisting of grasses, sedges, forbs, dwarf shrubs and trees, mosses, and lichens. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Turf Syn. Sod Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Turnout Act of turning livestock out on the range at the beginning of the grazing season. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Type (rangelands) Syn. vegetational type Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Type Line The boundary line which separates two distinctive vegetation types on a map or photograph. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Type Mapping The process of delineating vegetation types on an aerial photograph or on a base map. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Unauthorized Use The grazing of livestock on a range area without proper authority. cf. grazing trespass Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Undergrazing The act of continued underuse. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Understocking Placing a number of animals on a given area that will result in underuse at the end of the planned grazing period. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Understory Plants growing beneath the canopy of other plants. Usually refers to grasses, forbs and low shrubs under a tree or shrub canopy. cf. overstory Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Underuse A degree of use less than proper use. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Undesirable Species (1) Species that conflict with or do not contribute to the management objectives. (2) Species that are not readily eaten by animals. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ungrazed (1) The status of grazing land that is not grazed by animals. (2) The status of plants or plant parts that are not grazed by animals. cf. rest Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ungulate A hoofed animal, including ruminants but also horses, tapirs, elephants, rhinoceroses, and swine. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Upper Limit The maximum size of term permit which may be held by an individual, partnership or corporation. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Usable Forage That portion of the forage that can be grazed without damage to the basic resources; may vary with season of use, species and associated plant species. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Use 1) The proportion of current year's forage production that is consumed or destroyed by grazing animals. May refer either to a single species or to the vegetation as a whole. Syn. degree of use, (2) Utilization of range for a purpose such as grazing, bedding, shelter, trailing, watering, watershed, recreation, forestry, etc. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Utilization Syn. Use Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Vapor Drift The movement of pesticidal vapors from the area of application. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Variable Stocking The practice of allowing a variable number of animals on a fixed area of land during the time when grazing is allowed. cf. set stocking Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Vegetation (n.) Plant life in general. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Vegetation Management Status The relative degree to which the kinds, proportions, and amounts of vegetation in the present plant community resemble the desired plant community chosen for an ecological site. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Vegetation Type A kind of existing plant community with distinguishable characteristics described in terms of the present vegetation that dominates the aspect or physiognomy of the area. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Vegetative Non-reproductive plant parts, i.e. leaf and stem, in contrast to reproductive plant parts, i.e. flower and seed, in developmental stages of plant growth. The non-reproductive stage in plant development. Of or relating to vegetation. cf. vegetation Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Vegetative Reproduction Production of new plants by any asexual method. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Veld The open temperate grassland areas of southern Africa, typically containing scattered shrubs or trees. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Vigor Relates to the relative robustness of a plant in comparison to other individuals of the same species. It is reflected primarily by the size of a plant and its parts in relation to its age and the environment in which it is growing. Syn. plant vigor. cf. hybrid vigor Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Virgin Syn. Pristine Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Walkway An earthen embankment constructed to improve the accessibility of marsh range. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Warm-Season Plant (1) A plant which makes most or all its growth during the spring, summer or fall and is usually dormant in winter. (2) A plant that usually exhibits the C-4 photosynthetic pathway. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Water Gap (1) A specially constructed fence across a drainage. The fence is easily moved by the forces of a flood, thus preventing damage to the permanent fence. (2) An opening or fenced area providing access to a developed or natural water supply permitting one watering facility to serve two or more pastures. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Water Potential The thermodynamic state of the water in a cell, organism, or soil, equal to the difference in free energy per unit volume between matrically bound, pressurized or osmotically constrained water and that of pure water. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Water Spreader A terrace, dike or other structure intended to distribute surface-water runoff and increase the area of infiltration. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Watershed (rangelands) (1) A total area of land above a given point on a waterway that contributes runoff water to the flow at that point. (2) A major subdivision of a drainage basin. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Waterway A way or channel for water. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Weed (1) Any plant growing where unwanted. (2) A plant having a negative value within a given management system. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Well Horizontal A water source developed by drilling horizontally into a hillside to intercept a perched water table or underground water source; cf. spring Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Wet Meadow A meadow where the surface remains wet or moist throughout the growing season, usually characterized by sedges and rushes. cf. meadow, dry meadow Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Wetland Communities Plant communities that occur on sites with soils typically saturated with or covered with water most of the growing season. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Wetlands Areas characterized by soils that are usually saturated or ponded, i.e., hydric soils, that support mostly water-loving plants (hydrophytic plants). Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Wildlife Undomesticated vertebrate animals considered collectively, with the exception of fish. cf. game Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Wildlife Refuge A land area reserved and managed for the benefit of one or more species of wildlife. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Winter Range Range that is grazed during the winter months. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Wolf Plant (1) An individual plant that is generally considered palatable, but is not grazed by livestock. (2) An isolated plant growing to extraordinary size, usually from lack of competition or utilization. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Woodland 1. a forest area. 2. a plant community in which, in contrast to a typical forest, the trees are often small, characteristically short-boled relative to their crown depth, and forming only an open canopy with the intervening area being occupied by lower vegetation, commonly grass. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Woodland Pasture Farm woodlands also used for grazing. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Woodland Range Woodlands having understory vegetation suitable for grazing. Syn. forested range, grazable woodland Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Woody A term used in reference to trees, shrubs or browse that characteristically contain persistent ligneous material. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Xeric Having very little moisture; tolerating or adapted to dry conditions. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Yearling (rangelands) An animal approximately one year of age. A short yearling is from 9-12 months of age and a long yearling is from 12-18 months. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Yearlong Grazing Continuous grazing for a calendar year. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Yearlong Range Range that is, or can be, grazed yearlong. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Yield (rangelands) (1) The quantity of a product in a given space and/or time. (2) The harvested portion of a product. Syn. production, total annual yield or runoff Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Zoning (Rural) A means by which governmental authority is used to promote the proper use of land under certain circumstances. This power traditionally resides in the state, and the power to regulate land uses by zoning is usually delegated to minor units of government, such as towns, municipalities, and counties, through an enabling act that specifies powers granted and the conditions under which these are to be exercised. Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.