References about Plant Development, Growth, Physiology, and Defoliation Compiled by: Brad Schultz, Extension Educator, Winnemucca, Nevada
Book Chapters – Review/Synthesis Chapters
Briske, D. D. 1991. Developmental Morphology and Physiology of Grasses. Pp 85-108. In: Grazing Management: An Ecological Perspective. R. K. Heitschmidt and J. W. Stuth (eds). Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 259 pp. Available at: http://cnrit.tamu.edu/rlem/textbook/Chapter4.htm
Briske, D. D. and J. H. Richards. 1994. Physiological Responses of Individual plants to Grazing: Current Status and Ecological Significance. Pp 147-176. In: M. Vavra, W. A. Laycock, and R. D. Pieper (eds). Ecological Implications of Livestock Herbivory in the West. Society for Range Management, Denver, Colorado. 297 pp.
Briske, D. D. and J. H. Richards. 1995. Plant Responses to Defoliation: A Physiological, Morphological, and Demographic Evaluation. Pp 635-710. In: Wildland Plants: Physiological Ecology and Developmental Morphology. D. J. Bedunah and R. E. Sosebee (eds). Society for Range Management, Denver, Colorado. 710 pp.
Caldwell, M. M. 1984. Plant Requirements for Prudent Grazing. Pp 117-152. In: Developing Strategies for Rangeland Management. A report prepared by the Committee on Developing Strategies for Rangeland Management, National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. 2022 pp.
Coyne, P. I., M. J. Trlica, and C. E. Owensby. 1995. Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Range Plants. Pp 59-167. In: Wildland Plants: Physiological Ecology and Developmental Morphology. D. J. Bedunah and R. E. Sosebee (eds). Society for Range Management, Denver, Colorado. 710 pp.
Dahl, B. E. 1995. Developmental Morphology of Plants. Pp. 22-58. In: Wildland Plants: Physiological Ecology and Developmental Morphology. D. J. Bedunah and R. E. Sosebee (eds). Society for Range Management, Denver, Colorado. 710 pp.
Hyder, D. N. 1972. Defoliation in Relation to Vegetative Growth. Pp 304-317. In: V. B. Youngner and C. M. McKell (eds). The Biology and Utilization of Grasses. Academic Press, New York, New York. 426 pp.
Hyder, D. N. 1974. Morphogenesis and Management of Perennial Grasses in the United States. Pp 89-98. In: Plant morphogenesis for scientific management of Range Resources. USDA Miscellaneous Publication 1271.
Sims, P. L., R. E. Sosebee, and D. M. Engle. 1982. Plant and Vegetation Responses to Grazing Management. Pp 4-31. In: D. D. Briske and M. M. Kothman (eds.) Proceedings: A National Conference on Grazing Management Technology. November 10-12, 1982. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. 228 pp.
Valentine. J. F. 2001. Grazing Management (2nd Edition). Academic Press. New York, New York. 659 pp.
Youngner, V. B. 1972. Physiology of Defoliation and Regrowth. Pp 292-303. In: V. B. Youngner and C. M. McKell (eds). The Biology and Utilization of Grasses. Academic Press. New York, New York. 426 pp.
Review/Synthesis Papers from the Dickinson Research/Extension Facility, Dickinson, North Dakota
Manske, L. L. 1998. General Description of Grass Growth and Development and Defoliation Resistance Mechanisms. North Dakota State University Dickinson Research Extension Center. Range Management Report DREC98-1022. Dickinson, North Dakota. 12 pp. Available at: http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/dickinso/grassland/1022.htm
Manske, L. L. 1999. General Description of Grass Growth Development. North Dakota State University Extension Summary Report. Dickinson Research/Extension Center. 6 pp. Available at: http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/dickinso/research/1998/range98a.htm
Manske, L. L. 1999. Biological Effects of Defoliation on Grass Plants. North Dakota State University Extension Report. Dickinson Research/Extension Center. 8 pp. Available at: http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/dickinso/research/1998/range98b.htm
Manske, L. L. 2000. Defoliation Applied at Some Phonological Growth Stages Negatively Affects Grass Plants. Annual Report. Dickinson Research Extension Center. North Dakota State University. 5 pp. Available at: http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/dickinso/research/1999/range99a.htm
Manske, L. L. 2000. Defoliation Effects on the Structure and Dynamics of Grassland Ecosystems. Annual Report. Dickinson Research Extension Center. North Dakota State University. 13 pp. Available at: http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/dickinso/research/1999/range99f.htm
Manske, L. L. 2000. Range Plant Growth and Development Are Affected by Environmental Factors. Pp 44-48. In: L. L. Manske. Grazing Handbook.com. Available at: http://www.chaps2000.com/bin/ch2r4.pdf
Manske. L. L. 2000. Effects of Grazing Management Treatments on Rangeland Vegetation. Pp 70-75. In: L. L. Manske. Grazing Handbook.com. Available at: http://www.chaps2000.com/bin/ch2r8.pdf
Manske, L. L. 2000. Grazing Handbook.com. Available at: http://www.chaps2000.com/grazing.asp
Extension/Agricultural Experiment Station Publications
Cook, C. W. 1977. Effects of Season and Intensity of Use on Desert Vegetation. Bulletin 483 (Reprinted March 1977). Utah Agricultural Experiment Station. Utah State University, Logan, Utah. 57 pp.
Gates, D. H., G. A. Harris, and J. Johnson. 1980 (reprinted). Pacific Northwest Range: Its Nature and Use. PNW Bulletin 73. A Pacific Northwest Cooperative Extension Publication. Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. 28 pp.
Parker, K. G. 1978. The Nature and Use of Utah Range. Utah State University Extension Service. EC 359. 64 pp.
Trlica, M. J. 1999. Grass Growth and Response to Grazing. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. Fact Sheet No 6.108. 5 pp. Available at: http://drought.unl.edu/portals/2/documents/droughtbasics/plantgrowth_quick_facts.pdf
USDA Technical Bulletins
Crider, F. J. 1955. Root Growth Stoppage Resulting from Defoliation of Grass. USDA Technical Bulletin 1102. 23 pp.
McCarty, E. C. and R. Price. 1942. Growth and Carbohydrate Content of Important Mountain Forage Plants in Central Utah as Affected by Clipping and Grazing. USDA Technical Bulletin No 818. 51 pp.
Original Research Papers – Journal of Range Management
Available through: http://www.rangelands.org (click on publications, Journal of Range Management Archive)
Branson, F. A. 1953. Two new factors affecting resistance of grasses to grazing. Journal of Range Management 6:165-171.
Branson, F. A. 1956. Quantitative effects of clipping treatment on five range grasses. Journal of Range Management 9:86-88.
Busso, C. A., J. H . Richards, and N. J. Chatterton. 1990. Nonstructural carbohydrates and spring regrowth of two cool-season grasses: Interaction of drought and clipping. Journal of Range Management 43:336-343.
Cook, C. W. and L. A. Stoddart. 1953. Some growth responses of crested wheatgrass following herbage removal. Journal of Range Management 6:267-270
Cook, C. Wayne and R. Dennis Child. 1971. Recovery of desert plants in various states of vigor. Journal of Range Management 24:339-343.
Coyne, P. I. and C. Wayne Cook. 1970. Seasonal carbohydrate cycles in eight desert range species. Journal of Range Management 23:438-444.
Daer, T. and E. E. Willard. 1981. Total nonstructural carbohydrate trends in bluebunch wheatgrass related to growth and phenology. Journal of Range Management 34:377-379.
Donart, G. B. 1969. Carbohydrate reserves of six mountain range plants as related to growth. Journal of Range Management 22:411-415.
Menke, J. W. and M. J. Trlica. 1981. Carbohydrate reserve, phenology, and growth cycles of nine Colorado range species. Journal of Range Management 34:269-277.
Olson, B. E. and J. H. Richards. 1989. Crested wheatgrass growth and replacement following fertilization, thinning and neighbor removal. Journal of Range Management 42:93-97.
Orodho, A. B. and M. J. Trlica. 1990. Clipping and long-term grazing effects on biomass and carbohydrate reserves of Indian ricegrass. Journal of Range Management 43:52-57.
Peterson, R. A. 1962. Factors affecting resistance to heavy grazing in needle and thread grass. Journal of Range Management 15:183-189.
Rechenthin, C. A. 1956. Elementary morphology of grass growth and how it affects utilization. Journal of Range Management 9:167-171.
Trlica, M. J. and C. Wayne Cook. 1971. Defoliation effects on carbohydrate reserves of desert species. Journal of Range Management 24:418-425
Trlica, M. J., M. Buwai, and J. W. Menke. 1977. Effects of rest following defoliations on the recovery of several range species. Journal of Range Management 30:21-27.
White, L. M. 1973. Carbohydrate reserves of grasses: a review. Journal of Range Management 26:13-18.
Original Research Papers – Other Journals
Brown, R. F. 1985. The effect of severe defoliation on the subsequent growth and development of five rangeland pasture grasses in south-western Queensland. Australian Journal of Ecology 10:335-343.
Busso, C. A., R. J. Mueller, and J. H. Richards. 1989. Effects of drought and defoliation on bud viability in two caespitose grasses. Annals of Botany 63:477-485.
Busso, C. A. and J. H. Richards. 1995. Drought and clipping effects on tiller demography and growth of two tussock grasses in Utah. Journal of Arid Environments 29:239-251.
Caldwell, M. M., J. H. Richards, D. A. Johnson, R. S. Nowak, and R. S. Dzurec. 1981. Coping with herbivory: Photosynthetic capacity and resource allocatin in two semiarid Agropyron bunchgrasses. Oecologia 50:14-24.
Gold. W. G. and M. M. Caldwell. 1989. The effects of the spatial pattern of defoliation on regrowth of a tussock grass. Oecologia 80:289-296.
Gold, W. G. and M. M. Caldwell. 1990. The effects of spatial pattern of defoliation on regrowth of a tussock grass. Oecologia 82:12-17.
Hendrickson, J. R. and D. D. Briske. 1997. Axillary bud growth of two semi-arid perennial grasses: occurrence, longevity, and contribution to population persistence. Oecologia 110:584-591.
Hyder, D. N. and F. A. Sneva. 1963. Morphological and physiological factors affecting the grazing management of crested wheatgrass. Crop Science 3:267-271.
Nowak. R. S. and M. M. Caldwell. 1984. Photosynthetic activity and survival of foliage during winter for two bunchgrass species in a cold-winter steppe environment. Photosynthetica 18:192-200.
Nowak, R. S. and M. M. Caldwell. 1984. A test of compensatory photosynthesis in the field: implications for herbivory tolerance. Oecologia 61:311-318.
Olson, B. E. and J. H. Richards. 1988. Annual replacement of the tillers of Agropyron desertorum following grazing. Oecologia 76:1-6.
Olson, B. E. and J. H. Richards. 1988. Spatial arrangement of tiller replacement in Agropyron desertorum following grazing. Oecologia 76:7-10.
Richards, J. H. 1984. Root growth response to defoliation in two Agropyron bucnchgrasses: field observations with an improved root periscope. Oecologia 64:21-25.
Richards, J. H. and M. M. Caldwell. 1985. Soluble carbohydrates, concurrent photosynthesis, and efficiency in regrowth following defoliation: a field study with Agropyron species. Journal of Applied Ecology 22:907-920.
Richards, J. H., R. J. Mueller, and J. J. Mott. 1988. Tillering in tussock grasses in relation to defoliation and apical bud removal. Annals of Botany 62:173-179.
St-Pierre, J. C. and M. J. Wright. 1972. Distribution of 14C photosynthates in timothy (Phleum pretense L.) during the vegetative stage of growth. Crop Science 191-194.
Wandera, J. L., J. H. Richards, and R. J. Mueller. 1992. The relationship between relative growth rate, meristematic potential, and compensatory growth of semiarid-land shrubs. Oecologia 90:391-398.
Ward, C. Y. and R. E. Blaser. 1961. Carbohydrate food reserves and leaf area in regrowth of orchardgrass. Crop Science 1:366-370.