Livestock grazing, golden trout, and streams in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California: Impacts and management implications

Knapp, R. A., K. R. Matthews
Publication Year: 
Twelve habitat characteristics were measured inside and outside three livestock exclosures on two different streams in the Golden Trout Wilderness (118°15'N, 36°22'W), Sierra Nevada Mountains, California to determine the effect of livestock grazing on trout habitat. One exclosure was constructed in 1983, while the other two were built in 1991. Stream dimensions, water flow, substrate, and canopy height were measured among other variables along 125 m reaches at each site. Golden trout were surveyed using the electrofishing and willows were counted, and age-size classed along a two meter strip along the stream bank. Trout density was calculated as fish per square meter and fish per 125 meters stream reach. Measurements were taken in August of 1993 and 1994.
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Montana State University

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