Effects of leaf-cutting ant refuse on native plant performance under two levels of grazing intensity in the Monte Desert of Argentina

Author: 
Cerda, Noelia V
Tadey, Mariana
Farji-Brener, Alejandro G
Navarro, María C
Publisher: 
Applied Vegetation Science
Publication Year: 
2012
Description: 
Question Low quantities of soil nutrients often restrict plant establishment and growth in arid lands and have been partially attributed to the scarcity of organic matter in these ecosystems. Refuse dumps from leaf-cutting ants are a natural source of organic matter; however, their effects on native plant performance have received limited attention to date. Do refuse dumps from leaf-cutting ants (Acromyrmex lobicornis) enhance the germination and growth of several native plant species and what is the potential influence of heavy grazing on this practice? Location Monte Desert, Neuquén Province, Argentina. Methods We collected fruits of five plant species and two types of substrate (ant refuse dump vs control soil) from two known paddocks with different livestock densities (high vs low). We sowed seeds, previously weighed, of each species in both substrates from both paddocks and monitored their development. We harvested emerged seedlings, documenting their age and measured their height, weight, number of leaves, root weight and root length. Results Seed weight was lower in the highly grazed paddock for all the plant species studied. However, seed weight did not affect germination rate. Refuse dumps from the less grazed paddock (i.e. with higher nutrient content) enhanced the vigour of seedlings from smaller seeds more often than those from the highly grazed paddock. Also, germination improved when both seeds and substrate were from the less grazed paddock. Vigour variables showed more complex results, but seedlings growing in refuse dumps tended to be more vigorous. Refuse dumps from the less grazed paddock (i.e. with higher nutrient content) enhanced the vigour of seedlings from the highly grazed paddock (smaller) more than the seeds from the less grazed paddock (larger). Conclusions Our results demonstrated that ant refuse dumps increased plant germination rate and improved performance of the most representative vegetation in the Monte Desert. Given that external refuse dumps from leaf-cutting ants are a renewable resource, very abundant and easy to collect, this substrate could be used as a free natural fertilizer in arid regions to restore and manage vegetation cover, especially in heavily grazed sites.
Name of Journal: 
Applied Vegetation Science
Resource Type: 
Text
Document Type: 
Journal Issue/Article
Grassland Society of Southern Africa

The Grassland Society of Southern Africa (GSSA) is involved and concerned with the science and practice of range and pasture management. This broad field involves primarily the use and conservation of natural resources. It encompasses applied fields such as livestock production, wildlife management, nature conservation, water catchment management and range and mine-dump rehabilitation. The disciplines include, amongst others, ecology, botany zoology, range and pasture science, animal science, soil science and genetics. This collection includes journal articles from the African Journal of Range and Forage Science as well as related articles and reports from throughout the Southern African region.