Mechanism by which ammonium fertilizers kill tall larkspur.

Author: 
Ralphs, M.H.
Woolsey, L.
Bowns, J.E.
Publisher: 
Rangeland Ecology & Management / Journal of Range Management Archives
Publication Year: 
2003
Description: 
Environmental concerns of using pesticides on public lands have greatly reduced the use of herbicides to control tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi Huth). An alternative method of control used ammonium sulfate placed at the base of individual plants. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism by which fertilizers kill tall larkspur. We hypothesize the salt from the fertilizers kill the plant. We applied ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride at equivalent salt concentrations and evaluated their effect on tall larkspur plants. There was no difference among treatments in larkspur mortality (P > 0.10). The high rate of all treatments (ammonium sulfate 400 g plant-1, ammonium nitrate 264 g, and sodium chloride 180 g, at equivalent salt concentrations) killed greater than 70% of larkspur plants. We conclude the salt in fertilizers kills tall larkspur, not the nitrogen. It is necessary to place the fertilizer or salt at the base of the plant to concentrate it in the root zone, rather than broadcast it. At the end of the study, bare areas left around the dead tall larkspur plants were only 13% of the original size of the tall larkspur plants at Yampa Colo. and Cedar Ut., and 46% at Emery Ut., indicating the surrounding vegetation was quickly filling in the vacated space. The relative cost of materials per plant for both ammonium sulfate and nitrate was 12.9 cents, and 2.6 cents for salt.DOI:10.2458/azu_jrm_v56i5_ralphs
Document Type: 
Journal Issue/Article
Society for Range Management

Rangeland Ecology & Management (formerly the Journal of Range Management) serves as a forum for the presentation and discussion of facts, ideas, and philosophies pertaining to the study, management, ecology, and use of rangelands and their resources. The journal is peer-reviewed and provides international exchange of scholarly research and information among persons interested in rangelands. The Global Rangelands collection includes REM content up to 5 years from the current year. More recent content is available by subscription from BioOne and the Society for Range Management, and may be available at your local university library.
(Become a SRM member)