SRM Glossary

A (55)
| B (41)
| C (74)
| D (42)
| E (35)
| F (42)
| G (56)
| H (32)
| I (17)
| K (8)
| L (23)
| M (24)
| N (14)
| O (16)
| P (71)
| Q (1)
| R (77)
| S (89)
| T (32)
| U (12)
| V (10)
| W (20)
| X (1)
| Y (4)
| Z (1)
Term Description Source
A.U.

Abbr. Animal-UnitSyn. basal cover

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
A.U.M.

Abbr. animal-unit-month

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
A.U.Y.

Abbr. animal-unit-year

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Abiotic

Non-living components of an ecosystem; basic elements and compounds of the environment. cf. biota, biomass

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Abundance (Rangeland)

The total number of individuals of a species in an area, population, or community.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Accessibility (rangelands)

The ease with which an area can be reached by people or penetrated and grazed by animals. The ease with which herbivores can reach plants or plant parts.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Acclimatized Species

An introduced species which has become adapted to a new climate or a different environment and can perpetuate itself in the community without cultural treatment. cf. exotic, introduced species.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Acid Equivalent

The amount of toxicant in a pesticide expressed in terms of the parent acid or the amount that theoretically can be converted to the parent acid. Abbr. a.e.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Active ingredient

Chemical or chemicals in a prepared product responsible for the desired effects (generally pest control). Abbr. a.i.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Adjudication

(1) The allocation of rights or privileges following a hearing of conflicting claims either by a court or a hearing board. May refer to grazing, water, or any other rights or privileges. (2) The apportionment of grazing use on public range among eligible applicants.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Adjustment

Change in animal numbers, seasons of use, kinds or classes of animals, or management practices as warranted by specific conditions.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Administrative Site

Work center or other area reserved for administrative purposes.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Aerial Photograph

A photograph of the earth's surface taken from airborne equipment, sometime called aerial photo or air photograph.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Aftermath

Forage available after harvest.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Age-Class

(1) A descriptive term to indicate the relative age of plants. (2) Refers to age and class of animal.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Agro-silvo-pastoral

Land use system in which woody perennials are grown with agricultural crops, forage crops, and livestock production.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Agroforestry

Agroforestry intentionally combines agriculture and forestry to create integrated and sustainable land-use systems. Agroforestry takes advantage of the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with crops and/or livestock. Agroforestry practices include: Alley Cropping, Forest Farming, Riparian Forest Buffers, Silvopasture, and Windbreaks....

From USDA National Agroforestry Center http://www.unl.edu/nac/. February 2011
Agroforestry

Land use system in which woody perennials are grown for wood production with agricultural crops, with or without animal production.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Air-Dry Weight

The weight of a substance after it has been allowed to dry to equilibrium with the atmosphere.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Alienated Land

Land of one ownership enclosed within boundaries of another ownership. Often refers to land in private ownership within the boundaries of public land.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Allelopathy

Chemical inhibition of one organism by another.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Allotment

A rangeland and/or forestland area designated for the use of a prescribed number and kind of livestock under one plan of management. cf. community allotment

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Allotment Management Plan

A long-term operating plan for a grazing allotment on public land prepared and agreed to by the permittee and appropriate agency.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Alluvium

Sediments deposited by streams, rivers, and moving waters.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Alternate Stocking

The repeated grazing and resting of forage using two paddocks in succession.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Amortizing

The process of paying initial costs plus subsequent interest costs over a payment period, usually in equal periodic installments.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal Substitution Ratio

A numerical ratio of numbers, units or stocking levels of one animal species to another or in partitioning grazing capacity between two animal species. Such a ratio is site-specific since it is based on a unique set of environmental, forage, animal-herbage, and animal-area variables and requires knowledge of relative animal population levels.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal Unit Conversion Factor

A document which specifies the total authorized grazing for one year. cf. term license or permit.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Day

One day's tenure upon range by one animal. Must specify kind and class of animal. Not synonymous with animal-unit month.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Demand

Energy requirement of ungulate herbivores based only on animal-related factors such as body size, stage of life cycle, production stage, etc.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Month

A month's tenure upon range by one animal. Must specify kind and class of animal. Not synonymous with animal-unit month.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Unit

Considered to be one mature cow of about 1,000 pounds (450 kg), either dry or with calf up to 6 months of age, or their equivalent, consuming about 26 pounds (12 kg) of forage/day on an oven-dry basis. Abbr. AU. cf. animal-unit-equivalent

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Unit-Day

The forage demand (amount of forage) on an oven-dry basis required by one animal unit for a period of one day. Abbr. AUD

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Unit-Equivalent

A number relating the forage dry matter intake (oven-dry basis) of a particular kind or class of animal relative to one AU. If intake is not known, it can be estimated from the ratio of the metabolic weight of the animal in question to the metabolic weight of one AU (450 kg to the .75 power). Abbr. AUE

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Unit-Month

The amount of oven-dry forage (forage demand) required by one animal unit for a standardized period of 30 animal-unit-days. Not synonymous with animal month. Abbr. AUM. The term AUM is commonly used in three ways: (a) stocking rate, as in "X acres per AUM"; (b) forage allocations, as in "X AUMs in Allotment A"; (c) utilization, as in "X AUMs taken from Unit B."

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Animal-Unit-Year

Equal to 12 AUMs. Abbr. AUY

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Annual Grassland

California annual grasslands being managed as annual range and showing no trend in successional status.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Annual License or Permit

A document which specifies the total authorized grazing for one year. cf. term license or permit

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Annual Plant

A plant that completes its life cycle and dies in 1 year or less.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Annual Range

Range on which the principal forage plants are self-perpetuating annual, herbaceous species.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Apical dominance

The suppression of lateral (side) branches by the apical (topmost) shoot, or apex, of the plant.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Apparent Trend

An interpretation of trend based on observation and professional judgment at a single point in time.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Aquifer (rangelands)

A geologic formation capable of transmitting water through its pores at a rate sufficient for water supply purposes. The term water-bearing is sometime used synonymously with aquifer when a stratum furnishes water for a specific use. Aquifers are usually saturated sands, gravel, fractures, caverns or vesicular rock.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Area Ignition (Firestorm)

The practice of simultaneous ignition of fuel over an area planned to be burned under prescription or the natural occurrence/phenomenon of the same.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Arid

A term applied to regions or climates where lack of sufficient moisture severely limits growth and production of vegetation. The limits of precipitation vary considerably according to temperature conditions, with an upper annual limit for cool regions of 10 inches or less and for tropical regions as much as 15 to 20 inches. cf. semiarid

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Arroyo

The term used for large gully in Southwestern USA. Syn., coulee, gully

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Aspect

(1) The visual first impression of vegetation or a landscape at a particular time or as seen from a specific point. (2) The predominant direction of slope of the land. (3) The seasonal changes in the appearance of vegetation.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Association

Syn. plant association

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Autecology

A subdivision of ecology that deals with the relationship of individuals of a species to their environment. cf. synecology

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Autogate

Syn. Cattleguard

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Auxin

A plant hormone promoting or regulating growth.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Available Forage

cf. forage allowance, forage mass

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Available water

The amount of water held in the soil that can be extracted by plants. Also, the difference in the amount of water contained in soil at field capacity and the amount at the permanent wilting point.

Avulsion (riparian)

The sudden removal of land from one segment and joining it to another as a result of erosion caused by inundation or current. Also, a sudden change in the course of a river, by which a portion of land is cut off, as where a river changes course to form an oxbow.

Azonal Soil

A soil lacking a well-defined profile.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.