SRM Glossary

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| K (8)
| L (23)
| M (24)
| N (14)
| O (16)
| P (71)
| Q (1)
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| S (89)
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Term Description Source
Backfiring

Ignition of a fire on the leeward (downwind) side of a burn area, resulting in a slow moving ground fire. cf. headfiring

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Badland

A land type consisting of steep or very steep barren land, usually broken by an intricate maze of narrow ravines, sharp crests, and pinnacles resulting from serious erosion of soft geologic materials. Most common in arid or semiarid regions. A miscellaneous land type.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Balanced Operation

A range livestock enterprise which provides sufficient feed and forage resources during each season to promote continuous satisfactory maintenance and production of its livestock and game.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Band

Any number of sheep handled as a unit attended by a herder. cf. consolidated, drop, dayband, flock

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Band-Day

Tenure by a band of sheep of a given size and class for one day.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Bare Ground

All land surface not covered by vegetation, rock or litter. cf. ground cover

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Barren (rangelands)

1) (n.) Any area devoid of vegetation or practically so. (2) (adj.) A term to describe a mature female animal which is incapable of producing offspring.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Barrier

A physical obstruction which limits the movement of animals.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Basal Area

The cross sectional area of the stem or stems of a plant or of all plants in a stand. Herbaceous and small woody plants are measured at or near the ground level; larger woody plants are measured at breast or other designated height.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Basal Cover

Syn. basal area, cover

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Base Property

Those lands in a ranching enterprise which are owned or under long-term control of the operator.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Bed Ground

An area where animals sleep and rest.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Bedrock

In-place, solid rock exposed at the surface of the earth or overlain by unconsolidated material.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Bench Mark

(1) A permanent reference point. (2) In range inventory, it is used as a point where changes in vegetation through time are measured. (3) In soils, it is used to designate a major soil series which is representative of similar soils. (4) In economics, data that are used as a base for comparative purposes with similar data. (5) A surveyor's mark made on a permanent landmark that has known position and altitude.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Bentonite

A natural clay deposit which has high swelling capabilities when saturated; used to seal earthen stockponds.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biennial

A plant that lives for two years, producing vegetative growth the first year and usually blooming and fruiting in the second year and then dying.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biocide

A chemical toxic or lethal to living organisms.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biodegradable

Capable of being decomposed by natural processes.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biogeochemical Cycle

The cyclical system through which a given chemical element is transferred between biotic and abiotic components of the biosphere.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biomass

The total amount of living plants and animals above and below ground in an area at a given time.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biome

A major biotic unit consisting of plant and animal communities having similarities in form and environmental conditions, but not including the abiotic portion of the environment.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biota

All the species of plants and animals occurring within an area or region.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biotic

Refers to living components of an ecosystem, e.g., plants and animals.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Biotype

A group of individuals within a population occurring in nature, all with essentially the same genetic constitution. A species usually consists of many biotypes. cf. ecotype

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Blowout

(1) An excavation in areas of loose soil, usually sand, produced by wind. (2) A breakthrough or rupture of a soil surface attributable to hydraulic pressure, usually associated with sand boils.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Brand (rangelands)

(1) (v.) To mark the skin or wool of an animal in a distinctive pattern, by use of a hot or cold iron, chemical, paint, or other means to designate ownership or to identify individual animals for registration or management purposes. cf. marking, tagging, (2) (n.) The mark so made.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Breeding Herd

The animals retained for breeding purposes to provide for the perpetuation of the herd or band. Excludes animals being prepared for market.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Broadcast Seeding

Process of scattering seed on the surface of the soil prior to natural or artificial means of covering the seed with soil. cf. drill seeding

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Browse

(n.) The part of shrubs, woody vines and trees available for animal consumption. (v.) To search for or consume browse.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Browse Line

A well-defined height to which browse has been removed by animals. cf. highlining

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Browseway

A lane built through a dense brushland or brush thicket to provide access by herbivores and man and/or to encourage browse rejuvenation. cf. sendero

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Brush

1. A term encompassing various species of shrubs or small trees usually considered undesirable for livestock or timber management. The same species may have value for browse, wildlife habitat, or watershed protection. 2. In viticultural usage, the broken ends of vascular bundles that remain attached to the pedicel when a berry is pulled off of a cluster, or the prunings left in a vine row.

First definition from: Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Brush Control

Reduction of unwanted woody plants through fire, chemicals, mechanical methods, or biological means to achieve desired land management goals.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Brush Management

Manipulating woody plant cover to obtain desired quantities and types of woody cover and/or to reduce competition with herbaceous understory vegetation, in accordance with ecologically sound resource management objectives.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Brushland

An area covered primarily with brush, i.e., shrubland.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Buck-Fence

A fence constructed of wooden poles fastened horizontally to wooden cross-members. Such fences withstand heavy snows in mountainous regions, and eliminate the need for digging holes for posts in rock terrain. Also called buck-pole fence.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Bucking Range

In certain localities, range selected for placing rams with ewes.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Buffalo Wallow

A small natural depression of prairie occasionally containing standing water and having vegetation different from that of the surrounding area.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Bunch Grass

A grass having the characteristic growth habit of forming a bunch; lacking stolons or rhizomes. cf. sod grass

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Burn

An area over which fire has recently passed.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Butte

An isolated hill with relatively steep sides. cf. mesa

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.