SRM Glossary

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| K (8)
| L (23)
| M (24)
| N (14)
| O (16)
| P (71)
| Q (1)
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| S (89)
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| V (10)
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| Z (1)
Term Description Source
C-3 Plant

A plant employing the pentose phosphate pathway of carbon dioxide assimilation during photosynthesis; often a cool-season plant.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
C-4 Plant

A plant employing the dicarboxylic acid pathway of carbon dioxide assimilation during photosynthesis; often a warm season plant.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cabling

The use of a large cable pulled between two large crawler tractors to pull down or uproot brush. cf. chaining

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cactus

A spiny, succulent plant of the Cactaceae family.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Calf Crop

The number of calves weaned from a given number of cows exposed to breeding, usually expressed in percent, i.e., number of calves weaned {divided by} number of cows exposed x 100 = percent calf crop. cf. kid crop, lamb crop

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Caliche

(1) A layer in the soil horizon more or less cemented by secondary carbonates of calcium or magnesium precipitated from the soil solution. It may occur as a soil, thin soil horizon, as a hard, thick bed just beneath the solum, or as a surface layer exposed by erosion. Not a geologic deposit. (2) Alluvium cemented with sodium nitrate, chloride, and/or other soluble salts as in the nitrate deposits of Chile and Peru.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Camp Tender

One who transports supplies to a herder and moves the supply camp from place to place on the range.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Camp Unit

A subdivision of a sheep allotment on federally owned land. The camp tender may have the camp in one location several days to service the herder, who tents on a different bed ground each night with the camp unit.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Canopy (rangelands)

(1) The vertical projection downward of the aerial portion of vegetation, usually expressed as a percent of the ground so occupied. (2) The aerial portion of the overstory vegetation. cf. canopy cover

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Canopy Cover

The percentage of ground covered by a vertical projection of the outermost perimeter of the natural spread of foliage of plants. Small openings within the canopy are included. It may exceed 100%. Syn. crown cover

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Capability Area

Syn. ecological response unit

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Carrying Capacity

The average number of livestock and/or wildlife that may be sustained on a management unit compatible with management objectives for the unit. In addition to site characteristics, it is a function of management goals and management intensity. (SRM) The amount of forage produced annually in a management unit is only one attribute used to determine carrying capacity. The forage also has to be available to the animals. On many rangelands, the carrying capacity may be less than forage production would indicate because parts of the management unit are inaccessible to grazing animals. In essence, forage is present but unavailable.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Catchment Basin

Syn. Raintrap

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cattle Walkway

Syn. Walkway

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cattleguard

A device or structure, at points where roads or railroads cross a fence line, that is so designed that vehicular travel is uninterrupted but crossing by all kinds of livestock is restricted. Syn. Autogate

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cell

A grazing arrangement comprised of numerous subdivisions (paddocks or pastures) often formed by electrical fencing, with a central component to facilitate livestock management and movement to the various subdivisions. Normally used to facilitate a form of controlled grazing. cf. paddock

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Chaining

The use of a large ship anchor chain pulled between two large crawler tractors to pull down or uproot brush. cf. cabling

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Chaparral (rangelands)

(1) A shrub community composed of sclerophyllous species. (2) A dense thicket of stiff or thorny shrubs or dwarf trees.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Chiseling

Breaking or loosening the soil, without inversion, with a chisel cultivator or chisel plow. A practice used for grassland or pasture renovation. cf. ripping

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Class of Animal

Description of age and/or sex-group for a particular kind of animal. Example, cow, calf, yearling, ewe, doe, fawn, etc.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Classification

The assignment of items or concepts into classes based on similarity of selected attributes.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Claypan

A dense compact layer in the subsoil having a much higher clay content than the overlaying material from which it is separated by a sharply defined boundary; formed by downward movement of clay or by synthesis of clay in place during soil formation. Claypans are usually hard when dry and plastic and sticky when wet. They usually impede the movement of water and air. cf. hardpan

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Climate

(1) The long-term manifestations of weather (2) The statistical collection and representation of weather conditions for a specified area during a specified time interval, usually decades, together with a description of the state of the external system or boundary conditions. Properties that characterize climate are thermal (temperatures of the surface air, water, land, and ice), kinetic (wind and ocean currents, together with associated vertical motions and the motions of air masses, aqueous humidity, cloudiness and cloud water content, groundwater, lake lands, and water content of snow on land and sea ice), and static (pressure and density of the atmosphere and ocean, composition of the dry air, salinity of the oceans, and the geometric boundaries and physical constants of the system); these properties are interconnected by various physical processes such as precipitation, evaporation, infrared radiation, convection, advection, and turbulence.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Climax

(1) The final or stable biotic community in a successional series; it is self-perpetuating and in equilibrium with the physical habitat.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Clone

(1) A group of plants, growing in close association, derived by asexual reproduction from a single parent plant. Such plants are therefore of the same genetic constitution. (2) Genetically identical plants, usually obtained from asexual propagation methods.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Close Herding

Handling a herd in a closely bunched manner, restricting the natural spread of the animals when grazing.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Closed Area

Any area closed to certain types of use for management purposes.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Closed Range

Any range on which livestock grazing or other specified use is prohibited. cf. livestock exclusion

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cold Stratification

Keeping seed in a cool, moist environment for a period of time to simulate overwintering thereby reducing dormancy and increasing seed germination.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Commensurability

Capacity of a permittee's base ranch property to support permitted livestock during the period such livestock are off public land.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Commensurate Property

Land or controlled livestock water which qualifies a person for a grazing privilege, permit, or preference on the other land, either public or private.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Common Use

Grazing the current year's forage production by more than one kind of grazing animal either at the same time or at different seasons. cf. dual use

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Community

A general term for an assemblage of plants and/or animals living together and interacting among themselves in a specific location; no particular successional status is implied.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Community (Plant Community)

An assemblage of plants occurring together at any point in time, while denoting no particular successional status. A unit of vegetation.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Community Allotment

An allotment upon which several permittees graze livestock in common.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Community Type

An aggregation of all plant communities with similar structure and floristic composition. A unit of vegetation within a classification with no particular successional status implied.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Companion Crop

A crop sown with another crop (perennial forage or trees or shrubs) that is allowed to mature and provide a return in the first year. cf. nurse crop.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Comparison Area

An area with a documented history and/or condition that is used as a standard for comparison.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Competition (rangelands)

The interaction between organisms as a result of the removal or reduction of a common, required resource from the environment. Resources may include water, nutrients, light, oxygen, carbon dioxide, food and shelter.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Complementary Pasture

Short-term forage crop (not necessarily annual) planted for use by domestic stock to enhance the management and productivity of the ranch.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Complete Protection

The exclusion of all grazing animals from an area, usually for an extended period of time.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Composition

Syn. species composition

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Concentrate Feed

Grains or their products and other processed food materials that contain a high proportion of nutrients and are low in fiber and water.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Conservation

The use and management of natural resources according to principles that assure their sustained economic and/or social benefits without impairment of environmental quality.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Conservation District

A public organization created under state enabling law as a special-purpose district to develop and carry out a program of a soil, water, and related resource conservation, use, and development within its boundaries. Usually a subdivision of state government with a local governing body and always with limited authorities. Often called a soil conservation district or a soil and water conservation district.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Conservation Plan

The recorded decisions of a landowner or operator, cooperating with a conservation district, on how he/she plans, within practical limits, to use his/her land according to its capability and to treat it according to its needs for maintenance or improvement of the soil, water, and plant resources.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Consolidated Band

A band of sheep made up of several small bands.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Constancy

The percentage occurrence of a species within a given community type.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Consumers

Heterotrophic organisms, chiefly animals, that ingest other organisms or particulate organic matter.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Consumption (rangelands)

Dietary intake based on (1) amounts of specific forages and other feedstuffs, or (2) amounts of specific nutrients.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Contact herbicide

An herbicide that kills primarily by contact with plant tissue rather than as a result of translocation; also called non-systemic. Only the portions of the plant which came into contact with the herbicide will be affected.

Continuous Grazing

The grazing of a specific unit by livestock throughout a year or for that part of the year during which grazing is feasible. The term is not necessarily synonymous with yearlong grazing, since seasonal grazing may be involved. A preferred term is continuous stocking.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Continuous Stocking

A method of grazing livestock on a specific unit of land where animals have unrestricted and uninterrupted access throughout the time period when grazing is allowed. The length of the grazing period should be defined. cf. rotational stocking, set stocking

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Contour Furrow

A plowed or listed strip, commonly 8 to 18 inches deep and wide, made parallel to the horizontal contour for the purpose of water retention and reduction of soil erosion.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Control (rangelands)

(RESEARCH) Term to designate the standard or no treatment in an experiment in order to evaluate treatment responses.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Control (rangelands)

(PLANT) Manipulation and management for reduction of noxious plants, a term of many degrees ranging from slightly limiting to nearly complete replacement.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Controlled Burning

Syn. prescribed burning

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Conversion Factor

A factor by which stocking rates are partitioned according to the kind or class of animal based on energy requirements. cf. animal-unit

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cool-Season Plant

A plant which generally makes the major portion of its growth during the late fall, winter, and early spring. Cool-season species generally exhibit the C-3 photosynthetic pathway. cf. warm-season plant

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Coordinated Resource Management Planning

The process whereby various user groups are involved in discussion of alternate resource uses and collectively diagnose management problems, establish goals and objectives, and evaluate multiple use resource management.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Corral

A small enclosure for handling livestock.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Coulee

The term used for a deep gulch or ravine in the northern USA.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cover

(1) The plant or plant parts, living or dead, on the surface of the ground. Vegetative cover or herbage cover is composed of living plants and litter cover of dead parts of plants. Syn. foliar cover (2) The area of ground covered by plants of one or more species. cf. basal area

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cover Type

The existing vegetation of an area.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Creep Feeding (rangelands)

Supplemental feeding of suckling livestock in such a manner that the feed is not available to the mothers or other mature livestock.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Creep Grazing

The practice of allowing juvenile animals to graze areas that their dams cannot access at the same time.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Critical Area

An area which must be treated with special consideration because of inherent site factors, size, location, condition, values, or significant potential conflicts among uses.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cropland

Land devoted to the production of cultivated crops. May be used to produce forage crops. cf. forage crop

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cryptogam

A plant in any of the groups Thallophytes, Bryophytes, and Pteridophytes - mosses, lichens, and ferns.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cultivar

(Derived from cultivated variety). A named variety selected within a plant species. Distinguished by any morphological, physiological, cytological, or chemical characteristics. A variety of plant produced and maintained by cultivation which is genetically retained through subsequent generations.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cumulative Herbage Disappearance

The amount of herbage that disappears from the standing crop because of grazing, senescence, or other causes over some period of time. Unit: kg/ha, lbs/acre. cf. herbage disappearance rate

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cured Forage

Forage, either standing or harvested, that has been naturally or artificially dried and preserved for future use. cf. stockpiling

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cut

(1) (v.) To separate one or more animals from the herd or band. (n.) The animal(s) so separated. (2) To reduce livestock grazing, particularly on a public land allotment.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Cut-Back

(1) Animals refused by a buyer because of failure to meet specifications. (2) Animals removed from a higher to a lower classification in sorting for a specific purpose.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.