SRM Glossary

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| M (24)
| N (14)
| O (16)
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| Q (1)
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Term Description Source
Ear Marking

The process of removing parts of the ears of livestock so as to leave a distinctive pattern for the purpose of designating ownership and identification.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecesis

Establishment and development of a plant in the community.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecological Response Unit

A unit of land that is homogenous in character such that similar units will respond in the same way to disturbance or manipulation. Syn. ecological site, ecological type

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecological Site

A kind of land with specific physical characteristics which differs from other kinds of land in its ability to produce distinctive kinds and amounts of vegetation and in its response to management. Apparently synonymous with ecological type used by USFS.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecological Type

Syn. ecological site

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecology

The study of the interrelationships of organisms with their environment.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Economic Enterprise

Syn. economic ranch firm

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Economic Ranch Firm

A ranch business of sufficient earning capacity to provide an accepted standard of living for a family. Syn. economic enterprise

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecosystem

Organisms together with their abiotic environment, forming an interacting system, inhabiting an identifiable space.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecotone

A transition area of vegetation between two communities, having characteristics of both kinds of neighboring vegetation as well as characteristics of its own. Varies in width depending on site and climatic factors. cf. edge effect

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ecotype

A genetically differentiated subpopulation (race) that is restricted or adapted to a specific habitat 1. most differences among ecotypes are observed only when different ecotypes are tested in a common environment, 2. ecotypes are generally subdivided into races, e.g., edaphic, climatic (termed cline), geographic (termed variety)

Edaphic

Refers to the soil.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Edge Effect

(1) The influence of one adjoining plant community upon the margin of another affecting the composition and density of the populations. cf. ecotone (2) The effect executed by adjoining communities on the population structure within the margin zone. (3) The attraction of such an area to animals.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Effective Precipitation

That portion of total precipitation that becomes available for plant growth. It does not include precipitation lost to deep percolation below the root zone or to surface runoff or to evaporation or which falls during the dormant season unless stored in the soil for later use during the growing season.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Effective Rainfall

Syn. effective precipitation

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Emergency Feeding

Supplying feed to range animals when available forage is insufficient because of heavy storms, fires or other such emergencies. cf. maintenance feeding, supplemental feeding

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Enclosure

An area fenced to confine animals.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Endemic (rangelands)

Native to or restricted to a particular area, region or country.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Energy Budget

The balance of energy input and utilization within an organism, community, or system.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Environment (rangelands)

The sum of all external conditions that affect an organism or community to influence its development or existence.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Epinasty

The bending or twisting of twigs or leaf petiole or blades; often used in diagnosis of herbicidal effects on plants.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Eradication (plant)

Complete kill or removal of a noxious plant from an area, including all plant structures capable of sexual or vegetative reproduction.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Erosion

(v.) Detachment and movement of soil or rock fragments by water, wind, ice, or gravity. (n.) The land surface worn away by running water, wind, ice, or other geological agents, including such processes as gravitational creep.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Escarpment

A steep slope or ridge, terminating high lands abruptly, which was formed by erosion or by faulting.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Esophageal-Cannula

A device used for maintenance and closure of an esophageal fistula.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Esophageal-Fistula

A permanent, surgically established opening in the esophagus of an animal used for collecting diet samples. cf. esophageal-cannula

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Essential Element

A chemical element which is necessary for the life of an organism.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Evapotranspiration

The actual total loss of water by evaporation from soil, water bodies, and transpiration from vegetation, over a given area with time.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Evergreen (plant)

A plant that has leaves all year round, and generally sheds them in a single season after new leaves of the current growing season have matured. cf. deciduous

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Exclosure

An area fenced to exclude animals.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Excretion

The process of eliminating waste material from the body.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Exempt Stock

Livestock which are permitted to graze on federal land free of charge. Usually confined to animals actually used for domestic purposes: saddle horses, milk cows, etc.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Exotic

An organism or species which is not native to the region in which it is found.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Exposure (rangelands)

Direction of slope with respect to points of a compass.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Extensive Grazing Management

Grazing management that utilizes relatively large land areas per animal and a relatively low level of labor, resources, or capital. cf. intensive grazing management

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.