SRM Glossary

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Term Description Source
Fattening Range

Range devoted primarily to fattening of livestock for market. archaic

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fauna

The animal life of a region. A listing of animal species of a region.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Feces (faeces)

Waste material voided through the anus.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Feed (rangelands)

(n.) Any non-injurious, edible material having nutritive value when ingested (v.) The act of providing feed to animals.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Feed Ground

A designated place on a range where livestock are fed.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Feed Reserve

Feed stored for future use. cf. forage reserve

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Feral (rangelands)

Escaped from cultivation or domestication and existing in the wild. cf. acclimatized species

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fibrous Root System

A plant root system having a large number of small, finely divided, widely spreading roots, but no large taproots. Typified by grass root system. cf. taproot system

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Firebreak

A natural or man-made barrier used to prevent or retard the spread of fire, that is in existence or made before a fire occurs. It is usually created by the removal of vegetation. cf. fireline, fuelbreak

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fireline

A narrow line, 2 to 10 feet wide, from which all vegetation is removed by soil sterilization, yearly maintenance, treatment with a suitable fire retardant, or clearing just before ignition of a prescribed burn.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
First-Last Grazing

A method of utilizing two or more groups of animals, usually with different nutritional requirements, to graze sequentially on the same land area. Syn. leader-follower; preference-follower; top and bottom grazing.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Flexibility

Characteristics of a management plan which allow it to accommodate changing conditions.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Flock

A group of sheep managed in fenced pastures and not herded. cf. band

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Flora

(1) The plant species of an area. (2) A simple list of plant species or a taxonomic manual.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Flushing

Improving the nutrition of female breeding animals prior to and during the breeding season to stimulate ovulation.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fluvial

Pertaining to or produced by the action of a stream or river.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fly Camp

A secondary division of a main camp, generally more temporary than the central establishment. archaic

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Foliage

The green or live leaves of plants; mass leaves, leafage.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Foliar Cover

The percentage of ground covered by the vertical projection of the aerial portion of plants. Small openings in the canopy and intraspecific overlap are excluded. Foliar cover is always less than canopy cover; either may exceed 100%. Syn. Cover

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage (rangelands)

(n.) Browse and herbage which is available and may provide food for grazing animals or be harvested for feeding. (v.) To search for or consume forage. cf. (v.) browse, graze

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Accumulation

The increase in forage mass per unit area over a specified period of time. This definition can be appropriately altered to be specific to herbage or browse by substituting these terms in place of forage.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Allocation

The planning process or act of apportioning available forage among various kinds of animals, e.g., elk and cattle.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Allowance

The relationship between the weight of forage dry matter per unit area and the number of animal units at any one point in time; a forage-to-animal relationship. The inverse of grazing pressure. May be expressed as forage mass per animal unit (forage mass/animal unit at a specific time). This definition can be appropriately altered to be specific to herbage or browse by substituting these terms in place of forage.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Crop

A crop of cultivated plants or plant parts, other than separated grain, produced to be grazed or harvested for use as feed for animals.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Inventory

An estimate of available forage in each pasture and for the operating unit as a whole; used to project stocking rates and feed requirements for specific time periods (i.e., annually, grazing season, rotation cycle, etc.). cf. grazing inventory

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Mass

The total dry weight of forage per unit area of land, usually above ground level and at a defined reference level. This definition can be appropriately altered to be specific to herbage or browse by substituting these terms in place of forage. cf. available forage, herbage

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Production

The weight of forage that is produced within a designated period of time on a given area. The weight may be expressed as either green, air-dry, or oven-dry. The term may also be modified as to time of production such as annual, current year's, or seasonal forage production.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Reserve

Standing forage specifically maintained for future or emergency use.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forage Use Factor

An index to the grazing use that may be made for forage species that will maintain economically important forage species or to achieve other management objectives.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forb

Any broad-leafed herbaceous plant other than those in the Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae families. cf. legume

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forest Grazing

The use of forestland or woodland for both wood production and animal production by grazing.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forested Range

Forestland that produces, at least periodically, sufficient understory vegetation suitable for forage and that can be grazed without significantly impairing wood production and other forest values. Syn. grazable woodland, woodland range

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forestland

Land on which the vegetation is dominated by trees or, if trees are lacking, the land shows historic evidence of former forest and has not been converted to other uses.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Forward Creep

A method of creep grazing in which dams and offspring rotate through a series of paddocks with offspring as first grazers and dams as last grazers. A specific form of first-last grazing. cf. first-last grazing

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Free Range

Range open to grazing regardless of ownership and without payment of fees. Not to be confused with open range.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Free-Ranging

Ability to roam or forage at will, unrestricted by fences. cf. open herding

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Frequency

The ratio between the number of sample units that contain a species and the total number of sample units.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fresh Mulch

The primary layer of bulky, coarse, largely un-decayed herbage residuum. cf. mulch and humic mulch

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fresh Weight

The weight of plant materials at the time of harvest. Syn. green weight

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Frontal Grazing

A grazing method that allocated forage within a land area by means of a sliding fence that livestock can advance to gain access to ungrazed forage.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Fuelbreak

A strategically located block or strip on which existing flammable vegetation has been replaced by vegetation of lower fuel volume and/or flammability and subsequently maintained as an aid to fire control. cf. fireline

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Full Use

The maximum use during a grazing season that can be made of range forage under a given grazing program without inducing a downward trend in range condition or successional status.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.