SRM Glossary

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Term Description Source
Game

(1) Wild birds, fish, and other animals taken for sport or for use as food. (2) Wildlife species so designated by law and the harvest of which is regulated by law. cf. wildlife

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Game Cropping

Use of game animals in a wild state through harvesting them to keep populations in check and to reduce extreme cycles in numbers.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Game Ranching

Use of game animals under semidomestication to control breeding, health, nutrition, and production as a ranch-based enterprise.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Game Range

Range that is predominantly grazed or browsed by wildlife seasonally or year around. Especially pertinent with migratory big game herds, e.g., winter elk or deer range.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Game Refuge

An area set aside as a sanctuary for game.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Geographic Information System (GIS)

A spatial type of information management system which provides for the entry, storage, manipulation, retrieval, and display of spatially oriented data.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grade (rangelands)

(1) In livestock breeding, an offspring resulting from mating a purebred with a non-purebred or from mating animals not purebred but having close purebred ancestors. (2) In livestock marketing, a classification based on three fundamentals-conformation, finish, and quality-such as prime, choice, good, standard, etc. (3) To evaluate live animals in relation to a standard of quality.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Graminoid

Grass or grass-like plant, such as Poa, Carex and Juncus species.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grass

Members of the plant family Poaceae.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grass-like Plant

A plant of the Cyperaceae or Juncaceae families which vegetatively resembles a true grass of the Poaceae family.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grassland

Land on which the vegetation is dominated by grasses, grass like plants, and/or forbs (cf. dominant). Lands not presently grassland that were originally or could become grassland through natural succession may be classified as potential natural grassland.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Gravel Cobble Stones

As defined in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Conservation Service 1975): Gravel (2 mm-7.5 cm or 3 inches), cobble (7.5-25 cm; 3-10 inches), stones over 25 cm; 10 inches ). (Note: For standard range inventory procedures it is recommended that gravel smaller that 5 mm in diameter be classed as bare ground in cover determinations.)

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazable Forestland

Forestland on which the understory includes, as an integral part of the forest plant community, plants that can be grazed without detrimental impact to other forest values. Syn. grazable woodland, woodland range, forest range

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazable Woodland

Forestland on which the understory includes as an integral part of the forest plant community, plants that can be grazed without detrimental impact to other forest values. Syn. grazable forestland, forested range, woodland range

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Graze

(1) (vi.) The consumption of standing forage by livestock or wildlife. (2) (vt.) To put livestock to feed on standing forage.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazer

A grazing animal.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazier

A person who manages grazing animals.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing (rangelands)

(vt.) To graze.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Animal Concentration Index

The inverse of the grazing fraction, i.e., (l/GF). Abbr. GACI

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Behavior (rangelands)

The foraging response elicited from a herbivore by its interaction with its surrounding environment.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Capacity

The maximum stocking rate that will achieve a target level of animal performance, in a specified grazing method, based on total nutrient resources available, including harvested roughages and concentrates, that can be applied over a defined period without deterioration of the ecosystem. A description of the grazing capacity should include stocking rate, grazing method, targeted animal performance and nongrazed nutrient resources.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Cycle

The time elapsed between the beginning of one grazing period and the beginning of the next grazing period in the same paddock where the forage is regularly grazed and rested. One grazing cycle includes one grazing period plus one rest period.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Distribution

Dispersion of livestock grazing within a management unit or area.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing District

(1) An administrative unit of Federal range established by the Secretary of Interior under the provisions of the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934, as amended. (2) An administrative unit of state, private, or other rangelands, established under certain state laws.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Event

The length of time that an animal grazes without stopping. cf. grazing period

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Fee

A charge, usually on a monthly basis, for grazing use by a given kind of animal.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Fraction

The fraction of land in a single grazing system which is being grazed at any time. Abbr. GF cf. grazing animal concentration index

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing License or Permit

Official written permission to graze a specific number, kind, and class of livestock for a specified period on a defined allotment or management area. cf. annual, temporary, and term license or permit

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Management

The manipulation of animal grazing in pursuit of a defined objective.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Management Plan

A program of action designed to secure the best practicable use of the forage resources with grazing or browsing animals.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Management Unit

The grazing land area used to support a group of grazing animals for a grazing season. It may be a single area or it may have a number of subdivisions. cf. paddock, pasture

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Method

A defined procedure or technique of grazing management designed to achieve a specific objective(s). One or more grazing methods can be utilized within a grazing system.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Period

The length of time that grazing livestock or wildlife occupy a specific land area. cf. grazing event

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Permit

Syn. grazing license

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Preference

(1) Selection of certain plants, or plant parts, over others by grazing animals. (2) In the administration of public lands, a basis upon which permits and licenses are issued for grazing use. cf. palatability, grazing privilege and grazing right

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Pressure

An animal to forage relationship measured in terms of animal units per unit weight of forage at any instant, i.e., AU/kg or ton.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Pressure Index

An animal to forage relationship measured in terms of animal units per unit weight of forage over a period of time, i.e., AU/kg or ton.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Privilege

Permissive use of lands for grazing by livestock. cf. grazing right

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Right

A right to graze specified lands, permanently vested in the beneficiary as specified by the terms of the law or contract.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Season

(1) The time period during which grazing can normally be practiced each year or portion of each year. (2) On U.S. public lands, an established period for which grazing permits are issued. It may be the whole year or a very short time span, and is normally a function of forage mass and climate. In this context, the vegetative growing season may be only a part of the grazing season.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Survey

The systematic collection of data pertaining to forage resources and other information pertinent to range management. May be either extensive or intensive grazing survey. cf. range survey, forage inventory

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing System

A specialization of grazing management which defines the periods of grazing and non-grazing. Descriptive common names may be used; however, the first usage of a grazing system name in a publication should be followed by a description using a standard format. This format should consist of at least the following: the number of pastures (or units); number of herds; length of grazing periods; length of non-grazing periods for any given unit in the system followed by an abbreviation of the unit of time used. cf. deferred grazing, deferred-rotation, rotation, rest-rotation, and short duration grazing

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Trespass

The grazing of livestock on a range area without proper authority, and resulting from a willful or negligent act. cf. unauthorized use

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazing Unit

An area of land, public or private, which is grazed as an entity.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazingland

Any vegetated land that is grazed or that has the potential to be grazed by animals.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Grazingland Management

The manipulation of the soil-plant-animal complex of the grazing land in pursuit of a desired result. The definition may be applied to specific kinds of grazing land by substituting the appropriate term, such as grassland in place of grazingland.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ground Cover

The percentage of material, other than bare ground, covering the land surface. It may include live and standing dead vegetation, litter, cobble, gravel, stones and bedrock. Ground cover plus bare ground would total 100 percent.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ground Datum

A point on the earth's surface used as reference for measuring the height of aerial photography and for calculating photo scale.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ground Truth

Measurements or observations made on the ground for the purpose of verifying interpretations made from aerial photography or remote sensing.

Ground Water

Subsurface water that is in the zone of saturation. The top surface of the ground water is the water table. Source of water for wells, seepage, springs.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Growing season

Period of active growth.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Growth Form

The characteristic shape or appearance of an organism.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Growth regulator

A growth regulator is a natural or synthetic compound that regulates plant or insect growth. A growth retardant is a natural or synthetic compound that reduces or stops plant growth. A plant growth regulator (PGR) can be naturally produced by the plant (a hormone), or synthesized and applied to the plant. Poinsettias are often sprayed with PGRs before sale, to keep the plants small enough to be shipped without excessive plant breakage.

Grubbing

The act of removing roots, whether woody or herbaceous, by man or animal.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Gully

A furrow, channel or miniature valley, usually with steep sides through which water commonly flows during and immediately after rains or snow melt. cf. arroyo and coulee

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Guzzler

A device for collecting and storing precipitation for use by wildlife or livestock. Usually, consists of an impenetrable water collecting area, a storage facility and a trough from which animals can drink. Syn. raintrap, catchment basin. cf. trick tank

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.