SRM Glossary

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Term Description Source
P.L.S.

Abbreviation for pure live seed.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Paddock

(1) A grazing area that is a subdivision of a grazing management unit, and is enclosed and separated from other areas by a fence or barrier. (2) A relatively small enclosure used as an exercise and saddling area for horses, generally adjacent to stalls or stable. cf. grazing

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Palatability

The relish with which a particular species or plant part is consumed by an animal.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pan (Soils)

Horizon or layer in soils that is strongly compacted, indurated, or very high in clay content. cf. caliche, claypan, hardpan

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Park

(1) A relatively small opening of grassland in a forest. (2) A land area reserved and managed to protect an outstanding landscape and to make it available for public enjoyment.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Partial Budgeting (rangelands)

A limited budgeting procedure used to evaluate a proposed investment in an existing earning enterprise requiring only that additional costs and returns associated with the investment be considered; results often expressed in terms of an internal rate of return.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Partido System

In the southwestern United States, a form of operation in which sheep or cattle owned by the patron are let out on shares to a partidero, who cares for them and returns part of the increase or income to the owner. archaic

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pasture

(1) A grazing area enclosed and separated from other areas by fencing or other barriers; the management unit for grazing land. (2) Forage plants used as food for grazing animals. (3) Any area devoted to the production of forage, native or introduced, and harvested by grazing. (4) A group of subunits grazed within a rotational grazing system. (5) v. To feed on pasture; to use as pasture.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pasture Planting

Establishing adapted herbaceous species on land to be treated and grazed as pasture.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pastureland

Grazing lands, planted primarily to introduced or domesticated native forage species, which receive periodic renovation and/or cultural treatments such as tillage, fertilization, mowing, weed control and irrigation.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pedestaled

A condition where the soil has eroded from around individual plants or other objects such as small rocks, leaving them on small pedestals of soil. Sometimes the result of frost heaving.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Percent Use

Grazing use of current growth, usually expressed as a percent of the current growth (by weight) which has been removed. cf. degree of use

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Percolation

The flow of liquid through a porous substance.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Perennial Plant

A plant that has a life span of 3 or more years.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Period of Occupation

The length of time that a specific land area is occupied, whether by one animal group or by two or more animal groups in succession. cf. first-last grazing, forward creep grazing, period of stay.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Period of Stay

The length of time that a particular animal group occupies a specific land area. Period of occupation and period of stay differentiate between the total time a specific land area is utilized and the time that a particular group of animals is using said land area. The term is useful in describing grazing methods such as first-last grazing. cf. first-last grazing, forward creep grazing, period of occupation

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Permanent Water

A watering place which supplies water at all times throughout the year or grazing season.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Permittee

One who holds a permit to graze livestock on state, federal, or certain privately owned lands. Syn. Lessee

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pesticide (rangelands)

Any chemical agent such as herbicide, fungicide, insecticide, etc., used for control of specific organisms.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Phenology

the study of the time of appearance of characteristic periodic phenomena in the life cycle of organisms in nature, e.g., migration in birds and flowering and leaf-fall in plants, particularly as these phenomena are influenced by environmental factors. Phenology especially involves the effects of temperature or day length.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Phenotype (rangelands)

The physical appearance of an individual as contrasted with genetic makeup or genotype.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Phenoxy Herbicide

Syn. translocated herbicide

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Photo Interpretation

The art and science of identifying objects and conditions from photographs.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Photo Scale

Photo scale, or representative fraction (RF), is the ratio of the distance measured on the photograph to the distance measured at the ground datum. Photo scale can also be defined as the ratio of the focal length of the camera to the height of the lens above the ground datum at the moment of exposure.

Photogrammetry

Measurements made from aerial photographs including area measurements, distance, direction, height or differences in elevation or slope and the processes of mapping.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Photopoint

An identified point from which photographs are taken at periodic intervals.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Photosensitization

A non-contagious disease resulting from the abnormal reaction of light-colored skin to sunlight after a photodynamic agent has been absorbed through the animal's system. Grazing certain kinds of vegetation or ingesting certain molds under specific conditions causes photosensitization.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Phylogeny

The origin and evolution of higher taxa.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Phytomass

Total amount of plants (including dead attached parts) above and below ground in an area at a given time. cf. biomass

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Phytomer

One modular unit of a plant; consisting of the leaf, sheath (or petiole) and internode.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Phytotoxic

Toxic to plants.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Picture Point

A point that can be exactly identified on an aerial photograph.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pioneer Species

A plant or animal capable of establishing itself in a bare or barren area and initiating an ecological cycle.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pitting

Making shallow pits or basins of suitable capacity and distribution on range to reduce overland flow from rainfall or snowmelt.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plain

A broad stretch of relatively level treeless land.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plant Association

A kind of climax plant community consisting of stands with essentially the same dominant species in corresponding layers.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plant Community

An assemblage of plants occurring together at any point in time, thus denoting no particular successional status. A unit of vegetation.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plant Community Type

See community type.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plant Succession

Vegetation change.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plant Symbol

An abbreviation used to indicate the genus and species of a plant.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plant Vigor

Plant health. cf. plant vigor index

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Plant Vigor Index

An estimate of plant vigor based on measurement of one or more attributes.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Poisonous Plant

A plant containing or producing substances that cause sickness, death or a deviation from the normal state of health of animals. cf. toxic plant species

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Poloxalene

An anti-foaming agent fed to prevent legume bloat in ruminants.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Potential Natural Community

See potential natural vegetation.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Potential Natural Vegetation

A historical term originally defined by A. W. Kuchler as the stable vegetation community which could occupy a site under current climatic conditions without further influence by people. Often used interchangeably with Potential Natural Community.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Potential Plant Community

One of usually several plant communities that may become established on an ecological site under the present environmental conditions, either with or without interference by man.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Prairie

Nearly level or rolling grassland, originally treeless, and usually characterized by fertile soil.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Precipitation (rangelands)

Condensation from the atmosphere, falling as rainfall, snow, hail or sleet.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Preference

See grazing preference.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Preferred Species

Species that are preferred by animals and are grazed by first choice.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Premature Grazing

Grazing before range readiness; may be allowable if done infrequently and followed by adequate rest.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Preparatory Crop

A residue-producing temporary crop utilized as part of seedbed preparation to provide mulch into which forage plants can be direct seeded.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Prescribed Burning

The use of fire as a management tool under specified conditions for burning a predetermined area. cf. maintenance burning

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Primary Production

The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. It is represented by the total quantity of organic material produced within a given period by vegetation.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Primary Productivity

The rate of conversion of solar to chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Primary Range

Areas which animals prefer to use when management is limited. Primary range will be overused before secondary range is fully used.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Prior Use

Grazing use preceding a specific time.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Priority Use

The order of right or privilege to use land based on occupancy, use prior to a certain date, need or other criteria.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pristine

A state of ecological stability or condition existing in the absence of direct disturbance by modern man.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Problem Area

An area which is difficult to manage because of its shape, size, accessibility or other limiting factors.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Producer

An organism that can use radiant energy to synthesize organic substances from inorganic materials, e.g. green plants.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Productivity

The rate of production per unit area, usually expressed in terms of weight or energy.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Propagule

Any part of an organism, produced sexually or asexually that is capable of giving rise to a new individual.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Proper Grazing

The act of continuously obtaining proper use.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Proper Stocking

Placing a number of animals on a given area that will result in proper use at the end of the planned grazing period. Continued proper stocking will lead to proper grazing.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Proper Use

A degree of utilization of current year's growth which, if continued, will achieve management objectives and maintain or improve the long-term productivity of the site. Proper use varies with time and systems of grazing. Syn. proper utilization, proper grazing use, cf. allowable use

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Proper Use Factor

An index to the grazing use that may be made of a specific forage species, based on a system of range management that will maintain the economically important forage species, or achieve other management objectives such as maintenance of watersheds, recreation values, etc.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Proper Woodland Use

Grazing, where woodland grazing is a planned use, at an intensity that will maintain adequate cover for soil protection and maintain or improve the quantity of trees and forage.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Pure Live Seed

Purity and germination of seed expressed in percent; may be calculated by formula: P.L.S.= % germination x % purity x 100, e.g. (0.91 x 0.96) x 100 = 87.36%. Abbr., PLS or P.L.S. cf. seed purity

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Put-and-Take Stocking

The use of variable animal numbers during a grazing period or grazing season, with a periodic adjustment in animal numbers in an attempt of maintaining desired sward management criteria, i.e., a desired quantity of forage, degree of defoliation, or grazing pressure.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.