SRM Glossary

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Term Description Source
Rain Shadow

The region of diminished rainfall on the lee side of a mountain range, where the rainfall is noticeably less than on the windward side.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Raintrap

Syn. guzzler; catchment basin; cf. trick tank

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ranch

An establishment or firm with specific boundaries together with its lands and improvements, used for the grazing and production of domestic livestock and/or wildlife.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rancher

One who owns, leases or manages a ranch.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range

(n.) Land supporting indigenous vegetation that either is grazed or that has the potential to be grazed, and is managed as a natural ecosystem. Range includes grassland, grazable forestland, shrubland and pastureland. Range is not a use. (adj.) Modifies resources, products, activities, practices, and phenomena pertaining to rangeland. cf. rangeland, forested range, grazable woodland, shrubland, pastureland

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Administration

The conduct of the affairs of a range.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Appraisal

The classification and valuation of rangeland from an economic or production standpoint.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Condition

Historically, has usually been defined in one of two ways: (a) a generic term relating to present status of a unit of range in terms of specific values or potentials. Specific values or potentials must be stated. (b) the present state of vegetation of a range site in relation to the climax (natural potential) plant community for that site. It is an expression of the relative degree to which the kinds, proportions, and amounts of plants in a plant community resemble that of the climax plant community for the site. This term is being phased out. Preferred terms are successional status and range similarity index.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Condition Class

One of a series of arbitrary categories used to classify range condition as that term has been variously defined. See range condition.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Degradation

The process that leads to an irreversible reduction in capability of an ecological site to produce vegetation.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Discipline

A branch of knowledge pertaining to the use and management of range. Syn. range management

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Examiner

A person who collects and compiles information pertaining to range management and who prepares grazing management plans. Syn. range manager; range conservationist. Archaic

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Forage

Forage produced on rangeland. cf. forage, cured forage

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Improvement

Any activity or program on or relating to rangelands which is designed to improve production of forage, change vegetation composition, control patterns of use, provide water, stabilize soil and water conditions, or provide habitat for livestock and wildlife.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Lambing

Permitting females to drop their offspring on the range under approximately natural conditions of shelter and forage. cf. shed lambing

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Management

A distinct discipline founded on ecological principles and dealing with the use of rangelands and range resources for a variety of purposes. These purposes include use as watersheds, wildlife habitat, grazing by livestock, recreation, and aesthetics, as well as other associated uses.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Plan

Syn. management plan

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Readiness

The defined stage of plant growth at which grazing may begin under a specific management plan without permanent damage to vegetation or soil. Usually applied to seasonal range.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Research

A systematic, critical inquiry seeking facts and knowledge pertinent of range.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Reseeding

Syn. range seeding

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Resources

Syn. related resources

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Science

The organized body of knowledge upon which the practice of range management is based.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Seeding

The process of establishing vegetation by the artificial dissemination of seed.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Site

Syn. of ecological site on rangeland

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range States

In the U.S., generally considered as the seventeen western states excluding Alaska and Hawaii. In these states, the major portion of the land is used for the production of livestock from range.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range Type

An historical term that refers to, and only to, the 18 standard range vegetation types recognized by the 1937 Task Force (Interagency Range Survey Committee, 1937).

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Range User

The individual or organization using rangeland for a specific purpose. Most commonly associated with one having a permit to graze livestock on public land, but a hunter may also be considered a range user.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rangeland (rangelands)

Land on which the indigenous vegetation (climax or natural potential) is predominantly grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, or shrubs and is managed as a natural ecosystem. If plants are introduced, they are managed similarly. Rangeland includes natural grasslands, savannas, shrublands, many deserts, tundras, alpine communities, marshes and meadows.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rangeland Health

The degree to which the integrity of the soil, the vegetation, the water, and air as well as the ecological processes of the rangeland ecosystem is balanced and sustained. Integrity is defined as: Maintenance of the structure and functional attributes characteristic of a particular locale, including normal variability.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rangeland Hydrology

The study of hydrological principles as applied to range ecosystems.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rangeland Inventory (rangelands)

(v.) The systematic acquisition and analysis of resource information needed for planning and for management of rangeland. (n.) The information acquired through range inventory.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rangeland Remote Sensing

The detection, identification and assessment of condition of objects on rangelands with a camera, or other imaging device, situated at an appreciable distance from the imaged subject.

Rangeland Renovation

Improving rangeland by mechanical, chemical or other means.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rangeland Similarity Index

The present state of vegetation and soil protection of an ecological site in relation to the historic climax plant community for the site. Syn. range condition

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ration Grazing

Confining animals to an area of grazing land to provide the daily allowance of forage per animal. cf. strip grazing

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Reclamation

Restoration of a site or resource to a desired condition to achieve management objectives or stated goals. cf. revegetation

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Reconnaissance

A general examination or survey of a region with reference to its main features, usually as a preliminary act of a more detailed survey.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Recreation Area

A developed or undeveloped land area reserved and managed for recreational purposes.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rejuvenation (Browse)

Treatments such as mechanical, pyric or even chemical, applied to woody plants to encourage new growth as sprouts or seedlings available for browsing.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Related Resources

Those resources which bear relationship to one another because of common location and interdependency, such as range, game, recreation, watershed, soil, timber, etc.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Relict

A remnant or fragment of the climax plant community that remains from a former period when it was more widely distributed. Syn. Pristine

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Remote Sensing

The measurement or acquisition of information of some property of an object or phenomenon by a recording device that is not a physical or intimate contact with the object or phenomenon under study. Often involves aerial photography or satellite imagery.

Repeated Seasonal Grazing

A grazing strategy in which different kinds of pastures are arranged in a series and each is grazed at the same time each year, often for less than the full feasible grazing season to provide a special use. Syn. seasonal grazing

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Reseeding

Syn. range seeding

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Resident Species

Species common to an area without distinction as to being native or introduced.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Residue

Forage remaining on the land as a consequence of harvest.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Resource Value Rating (RVR)

The value of vegetation present on an ecological site for a particular use or benefit. RVR's may be established for each plant community capable of being produced on an ecological site, including exotic or cultivated species.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rest

To leave an area of grazing land ungrazed or unharvested for a specific time, such as a year, a growing season or a specified period required within a particular management practice. Syn. spell. cf. rest period, ungrazed, deferment

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rest Period

The length of time that a specific land area is allowed to rest. Syn. spelling period, cf. rest

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rest-Rotation

A grazing management scheme in which rest periods for individual pastures, paddocks or grazing units, generally for the full growing season, are incorporated into a grazing rotation. cf. grazing system. See rotational stocking

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Restricted Area

An area on which grazing tenure is limited.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Retrogression

An historical term used by some ecologists to mean succession in reverse. According to Clements (1916), however, retrogression is synonymous with destruction and denudation of a community.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Revegetation

Establishing or re-establishing desirable plants on areas where desirable plants are absent or of inadequate density, by management alone (natural revegetation) or by seeding or transplanting (artificial revegetation). cf. range seeding

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rhizome

A horizontal underground stem, usually sending out roots and aboveground shoots from the nodes.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Riding Down

Pushing over small trees and shrubs by livestock or wildlife in order to reach the browse. archaic

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Riparian

Referring to or relating to areas adjacent of water or influenced by free water associated with streams or rivers on geologic surfaces occupying the lowest position on a watershed.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Riparian Community Type

A recurring, classified, defined and recognizable assemblage of riparian plant species.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Riparian Ecosystems

(1) Those assemblages of plants, animals, and aquatic communities whose presences can be either directly or indirectly attributed to factors that are water-influenced or related. (2) Interacting system between aquatic and terrestrial situations identified by soil characteristics, and distinctive vegetation that requires or tolerates free or unbound water.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Riparian Species

Plant species occurring within the riparian zone. Obligate species require the environmental conditions within the riparian zone; facultative species tolerate the environmental conditions, and may occur away from the riparian zone.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Riparian Vegetation

Plant communities dependent upon the presence of free water near the ground surface (high water table).

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Riparian Zone

The banks and adjacent areas of water bodies, water courses, seeps and springs whose waters provide soil moisture sufficiently in excess of that otherwise available locally so as to provide a more moist habitat than that of contiguous flood plains and uplands.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ripping

The mechanical penetration and shearing of range soils to depths of 8 to 18 inches for the purpose of breaking hardpan layers to facilitate penetration of plant roots, water, organic matter, and nutrients. A range improvement practice used where native grasses of a rhizomatous nature can spread into the ripped soil. cf. chiseling

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rodent

Any animal of the order Rodentia, and commonly includes the order Lagomorpha, many of which influence the range through such habits as grazing, burrowing, etc. Important range rodents include pocket gophers, prairie dogs, ground squirrels, certain terrestrial mice, kangaroo rats, jackrabbits and marmots.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rodent Control

Measures taken to reduce or control the rodent population of a given area. This may apply to a specific species or rodents in general. cf. rodent

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rotation Grazing

A grazing scheme where animals are moved from one grazing unit (paddock) in the same group of grazing units to another without regard to specific graze: rest periods or levels of plant defoliation. cf. grazing system

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rotational Deferred

Systematic rotation of deferment among land areas within a grazing management unit.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rotational Stocking

A grazing method that utilizes recurring periods of grazing and rest among two or more paddocks in a grazing management unit throughout the period when grazing is allowed. The lengths of the grazing and of the rest periods should be defined. Words such as controlled or intensive are sometimes used in an attempt to describe the degree of grazing management applied to this grazing method. These words are not synonyms for rotational stocking. cf. continuous stocking

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rough

(1) The accumulation of mature living and dead vegetation, especially grasses and forbs, on forest range, marshland or prairie. (2) May refer to land surface with uneven terrain.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Roughage (rangelands)

Plant materials containing a low proportion of nutrients per unit of weight and usually bulky and coarse, high in fiber and low in total digestible nutrients. Roughage may be classed as either dry or green.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Roundup (rangelands)

The purposeful gathering of animals into a herd by man.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ruderal

A plant inhabiting disturbed sites.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rumen (rangelands)

The large, first compartment of the stomach of a ruminant from which ingested food is regurgitated for re-chewing and in which digestion is aided by symbiotic action of microbes.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Ruminant (rangelands)

Even-toed, hoofed mammals that chew the cud and have a 4-chamber stomach., i.e. Ruminantia.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Runoff

The total stream discharge of water, including both surface and subsurface flow, usually expressed in acre-feet of water yield.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Runoff Groundwater

Precipitation which percolates through the soil mantle to the groundwater table and is eventually discharged into a stream.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Runoff Surface

That part of runoff that travels over the soil surface to a stream channel. Syn. overland flow

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Rustler

(1) An energetic animal well able to shift for itself. (2) A thief of livestock.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.