SRM Glossary

A (55)
| B (41)
| C (74)
| D (42)
| E (35)
| F (42)
| G (56)
| H (32)
| I (17)
| K (8)
| L (23)
| M (24)
| N (14)
| O (16)
| P (71)
| Q (1)
| R (77)
| S (89)
| T (32)
| U (12)
| V (10)
| W (20)
| X (1)
| Y (4)
| Z (1)
Term Description Source
Sacrifice Area

A portion of the range, irrespective of site, that is unavoidably overgrazed to obtain efficient overall use of the management area.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sacrifice Site

A range site that is unavoidably overgrazed to obtain efficient overall use of the management area.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Salt Ground

An area where salt is placed for use by livestock or game; often relocated periodically to achieve improved animal distribution.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Salt Lick

Spots containing unusually large quantities of salts in the soil where animals consume the soil to obtain salt.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Salting

(1) Providing salt as a mineral supplement for animals. (2) Placing salt on the range in such a manner as to improve distribution of livestock grazing.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sample (rangelands)

A part of a population taken to estimate a parameter of the whole population.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sand Tank

A water development constructed by placing a dam in a rock-bound channel and bonded to bedrock, and using the sand/gravel trap above the dam for water storage.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Savanna

Grassland with scattered trees or shrubs; often a transitional type between true grassland and forestland, and accompanied by a climate with alternating wet and dry seasons.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Scrub

Vegetation dominated by short, stunted woody plants growing thickly together or intermingled with cacti.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seasonal Distribution

(1) The progressive grazing in a sequence of moves from one part of a range to another as vegetation develops. (2) The normal occurrence of precipitation at different periods of the year.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seasonal Grazing

Grazing restricted to one or more specific seasons of the year.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seasonal Use

(1) Synonymous with seasonal grazing, (2) Seasonal preference of certain plant species by animals.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seasonal Zone

An area of the range which livestock and wildlife prefer at certain seasons.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Secondary Range

Range which is lightly used or unused by livestock under minimal management and will ordinarily not be fully used until the primary range has been overused.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed

A fertilized ripened ovule of a flowering plant.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed Certification

A system whereby seed of plant cultivars is produced, harvested and marketed under authorized regulation to insure seed of high quality and genetic purity.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed Dormant

Live seed in a non-germinative condition because of (1) internal inhibitions in seed, i.e., hard seed, or (2) unfavorable environmental conditions. cf. seed, hard

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed Dribbler

A metering device that drops seed onto the track of a crawler tractor for the purpose of being carried forward and pressed into the ground as the tractor passes.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed Hard

Live seed in a physiological condition that prevents or delays germination, even when a favorable environment exists. cf. seed, dormant

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed Inoculation

Treatment of legume seed with rhizobium bacteria before planting to enhance subsequent nitrogen fixation.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed Purity

The percentage of the desired species in relation to the total quantity, including other species, weed seed, and foreign matter. cf. pure live seed

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seed Scarification

Mechanical or acid treatment of seed-coats to improve water absorption and enhance germination.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seedbed Preparation (rangelands)

Soil treatment prior to seeding to: (1) reduce or eliminate existing vegetation, (2) reduce the effective supply of weed seed, (3) modify physical soil characteristics and (4) enhance temperature and water characteristics of the microenvironment.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seep

Wet areas, normally not flowing, arising from an underground water source.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Selective Grazing

The grazing of certain plant species, individual plants, or plant parts on the range to the exclusion of others.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Selectivity Ratio

The fraction or decimal indicating the proportion of the diet contributed by a plant species, species group, or plant part; an expression of relative preference.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Semiarid

A term applied to regions or climates where moisture is normally greater than under arid conditions, but still definitely limits the production of vegetation. The upper limit of average annual precipitation in the cold, semiarid regions is as low as 15 inches (380 mm), whereas in warm tropical regions it is as high as 45-50 inches (1,100-1,300mm).

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sendero

A path or lane cut or dozed through brushy areas to provide access by livestock, pedestrians, or vehicles. A term commonly used in the Southwest. cf. browse way

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sequence Grazing

The grazing of two or more land units in succession that differ in forage species composition. Sequence grazing takes advantage of differences among forage species combinations, grown in separate areas for management purposes, to extend forage quality and/or quantity, or achieve some other management objective.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seral

Refers to species or communities that are eventually replaced by other species or communities within a sere.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seral Community

The relatively transitory communities that develop under plant succession. Syn. seral stage

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Seral Stages

The relatively transitory communities that develop under plant succession. Syn. seral community

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sere

The whole series of communities that develop in a given situation during plant succession.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Set Stocking

The practice of allowing a fixed number of animals on a fixed area of land during the time when grazing is allowed. cf. variable stocking

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sex Ratio

The ratio existing between the number of male and female animals within a given herd, band or population.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Shearing Plant

A general term used to describe the buildings, machinery, pens and other appurtenances of an establishment where animals are shorn.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Shed Lambing

Housing and feeding females during the time offspring are dropped. cf. range lambing

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Shinnery

Range vegetation having dwarf oaks as dominants.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Short-Duration Grazing

Grazing management whereby relatively short periods (days) of grazing and associated non-grazing are applied to range or pasture units. Periods of grazing and non-grazing are based upon plant growth characteristics. Short duration grazing has nothing to do with intensity of grazing use. cf. grazing system

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Shrub

A plant that has persistent, woody stems and a relatively low growth habit, and that generally produces several basal shoots instead of a single bole. It differs from a tree by its low stature (generally less than 5 meters, or 16 feet) and non-arborescent form.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Shrubland

Land on which the vegetation is dominated by shrubs.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Silvo-Pastoral

Preferred term is forest grazing.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Site

The place or seat of any specified thing. cf. administrative site, range site.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Site Conservation Rating (SCR)

An assessment of the protection afforded a site by the current vegetation against loss of potential. SCR greater than Site Conservation Threshold (SCT) is considered a "satisfactory" SCR and below SCT is considered an "unsatisfactory" SCR.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Site Conservation Threshold (SCT)

The kind, amount and/or pattern of vegetation needed as a minimum on a given site to prevent accelerated erosion.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Skylining

The development of a line of uniform height of vegetation which gives an illusion of a horizon usually associated with excessive use of browse. May refer to either top line or under line. Syn. Highlining

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Slope

A slant or incline of the land surface, measured in degrees from the horizontal, or in the percent (defined as the number of feet or meters change in elevation per 100 of the same units of horizontal distance); may be further characterized by direction (exposure).

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Snow Fence

A fence used to retard or alter the movement of snow by wind.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sod

Vegetation which grows so as to form a mat of soil and vegetation. Syn. Turf

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sod Grasses

Stoloniferous or rhizomatous grasses which form a sodor turf. cf. bunchgrass

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sod Seeding

Direct drilling of seed on sites on which no seedbed preparation had been made.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Soil

(1) The unconsolidated mineral and organic material on the immediate surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants. (2) The unconsolidated mineral matter on the surface of the earth that has been subjected to and influenced by genetic and environmental factors of parent material, climate (including moisture and temperature effects), macro- and micro-organisms, and topography, all acting over a period of time and producing a product-soil that differs from the material from which it was derived in many physical, chemical, biological, and morphological properties and characteristics.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Species (rangelands)

A taxon or rank species; in the hierarchy or biological classification, the category below genus.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Species Composition

The proportions of various plant species in relation to the total on a given area. It may be expressed in terms of cover, density, weight, etc.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Spot Grazing

Repeated grazing of small areas while adjacent areas are lightly grazed or unused.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Spray Drift

The movement of airborne spray particles from the intended area of application, i.e., horizontal displacement.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Spreader Dam

Syn. Waterspreader

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Spring

Flowing water originating from an underground source.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Spring-Fall Range

Range that is grazed primarily during the spring and fall.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Standing Crop

The total amount of plant material per unit of space at a given time. Often is divided into above ground and below ground portions and further may be modified by the descriptors "dead" or "live" to more accurately define the specific type of biomass.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stem

The culm or branch of a plant.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Steppe

Semi-arid grassland characterized by grasses occurring in scattered bunches with other herbaceous vegetation and occasional woody species.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stock (rangelands)

Livestock.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stock Driveway

Syn. Driveway

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stock Trail

A trail constructed across a natural barrier to permit movement of livestock to otherwise inaccessible areas.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stocking Density

The relationship between number of animals and the specific unit of land being grazed at any one point in time. May be expressed in animal units per unit of land area (animal units at a specific time/area of land). cf. stocking rate

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stocking Plan

The number and kind of livestock assigned to one or more given management areas or units for a specified period.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stocking Rate

The relationship between the number of animals and the grazing management unit utilized over a specified time period. May be expressed as animal units per unit of land area (animal units over a described time period/area of land). cf. stocking density

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stockpiling

Allowing standing forage to accumulate for grazing at a later period, often for fall and winter grazing after dormancy. cf. cured forage

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stockpiling Forage

(v.) To allow forage to accumulate for grazing at a later period. Forage is often stockpiled for autumn and winter grazing, after or during dormancy or semi-dormancy, but stockpiling may occur at any time during the year as a part of a management plan. Stockpiling can be described in terms of deferment and forage accumulation.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stockpond

A water impoundment made by constructing a dam or by excavating a dugout or both, to provide water for livestock and wildlife. cf. catchment, guzzler; trick tank

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stockwater Development

Development of a new or improved source of stockwater supply, such as well, spring, pond, together with storage and delivery system.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stolon

A horizontal stem which grows along the surface of the soil and roots at the nodes.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Strip Grazing

Confining animals to an area of grazing land to be grazed in a relatively short period of time, where the paddock size is varied to allow access to a specific land area. Strip grazing may or may not be a form of rotational stocking, depending on whether or not specific paddocks are utilized for recurring periods of grazing and rest. cf. rotational stocking, ration grazing

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Stubble

The basal portion of herbaceous plants remaining after the top portion has been harvested either artificially or by grazing animals.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Submarginal Land

Land that is either physically or economically incapable of indefinitely sustaining a certain use.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Substitution Ratio

Number of animals or animal-units of one kind or class that can be substituted for another kind or class to meet a specified management objective. Syn . animal-substitution ratio

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Subunit

The subdivisions of a single grazing system. cf. paddock, pasture

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Succession

The progressive replacement of plant communities on a site which leads to the potential natural plant community; i.e., attaining stability. Primary succession entails simultaneous succession of soil from patent material and vegetation. Secondary succession occurs following disturbances on sites that previously supported vegetation, and entails plant succession on a more mature soil. cf. plant succession

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Successional Status

The present state of vegetation and soil protection of an ecological site in relation to the potential natural community for the site. Successional status is the expression of the relative degree to which kinds, proportions and amounts of plants in a community resemble that of the potential natural community. If classes or ratings are used, they should be described in successional rather than utilization terms. For example, some agencies are utilizing four classes of successional status ratings (early seral, midseral, late seral, potential natural community) of vegetation corresponding to 0-25%, 26-50%, 51-75% and 76-100% of the potential natural community standard. Soil status is a measure of present vegetation and litter cover relative to the amount of cover needed on the site to prevent accelerated erosion. This term is not used by all agencies. cf. range condition

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Summer Range

Range, particularly in the mountainous western states, that is grazed primarily during the summer growing season.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Supplement (rangelands)

Nutritional additive (salt, protein, phosphorus, etc.) intended to remedy deficiencies of the range diet.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Supplemental Feeding

Supplying concentrates or harvested feed to correct deficiencies of the range diet. Often erroneously used to mean emergency feeding. cf. maintenance feeding

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Surfactant

(from surface active agent) Material used in herbicide formulations to bring about emulsifiability, spreading, wetting, sticking, dispersibility, solubilization or other surface-modifying properties. Also see adjuvant.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Suspension Fence

Non-woven wire fence comprised of high tension wire supported by rigid stays and widely spaced posts to which wire is not firmly attached.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sustained Yield

Production of specified resources or commodities at a given rate for a designated unit of time.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Swale

An area of low and sometimes wet land.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Sward

A population of herbaceous plants, characterized by a relatively short habit of growth and relatively continuous ground cover, including both above and below ground parts.

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.
Synecology

A subdivision of ecology that deals with the study of groups of organisms associated as a unit, i.e., communities. cf. autecology

Society for Range Management. 1998. Glossary of terms used in range management, fourth edition. Edited by the Glossary Update Task Group, Thomas E. Bedell, Chairman. Used with permission.